Julius Adrian was a Prussian merchant who by at least February 1859 was trading under 
Dutch protection at Dejima. By June 1861, he had established the headquarters of his firm, 
Adrian & Co., at No. 13 Dejima. In late 1864, he was joined by his brother Theodore, and, 
soon thereafter, the offices of Adrian & Co. were moved to No. 10 Dejima. The trading firm 
was transferred to No. 3 Umegasaki in April 1868. The Danish flag flew over the office 
building because Heinrich Schiff, a company employee, served as Consul for Denmark.

In May 1866, Julius Adrian and his son moved to a private residence at No. 3 
Higashiyamate. Later that year, they relocated nearby to No. 7 Higashiyamate and then in 
July 1867 to No. 6 Higashiyamate. Since Julius Adrian served as Belgian Consul, the Belgian 
flag flew over his house.  

By September 1870, as Julius Adrian's own firm was winding down in Nagasaki, he was 
working with the Netherlands Trading Society (NTS). In this capacity, he oversaw the 
bankruptcy meeting of Glover & Co. and supervised the takeover of the Takashima coal 
mine by NTS.  

Adrian & Co. ceased doing business as of January 1, 1871 (its business concerns were 
taken over by Van Delden & Co.), but Julius Adrian remained in town for almost two years.  
Twice, in 1871 and 1872, he served as U. S. Vice-Consul during the absence of Consul Willie 
P. Mangum. Closing out Julius Adrian's twelve-year chapter in Nagasaki, in December 1872, 
his furniture at No. 6 Higashiyamate was sold at auction and he left town.


Beatrice Julian Allen was born on September 14, 1849 in Shropshire, England, the daughter 
of Archdeacon John Allen. She came to Nagasaki in May 1895 as a member of the Church 
Missionary Society. Allen went on leave to England in 1899 and when she returned to 
Japan in October 1900, she was transferred to Kokura. Allen left Kokura due to illness in 
July 1905. She died on October 16, 1905 in Lichfield, England at the age of fifty-six. 


Albertus Johannes Bauduin was born in the Netherlands on June 24, 1829. He arrived in 
Nagasaki on April 3, 1859 as a merchant for the Netherlands Trading Society. In addition to 
his merchant duties, he also served as the Dutch and Swiss Consul in Nagasaki. He 
remained in Japan until 1874. A.J. Bauduin died on July 25, 1890 at the age of sixty-one.  
His elder brother Antonius Franciscus Bauduin (1820-1885) came to Nagasaki in October 
1862 as a physician with what later became the Nagasaki University Medical College.  
Antonius returned briefly to the Netherlands in 1866, but came back to Nagasaki in 1868. In 
1872, he returned permanently to the Netherlands.  


Edith Mary Bernau came to Japan in 1894 as a member of the Church Missionary Society.  
In 1897 she arrived in Nagasaki in order to study the Japanese language. In early 1898, 
however, she was forced to take charge of the Girls' Training Home when Harriet Cochram 
became ill and had to transfer to Kagoshima. The school had been started in 1879 by Eliza 
Goodall and later run by Jane Harvey. Bernau remained as a missionary in Nagasaki until 
1899. The following year she left the CMS to marry Rev. G.H. Moule. 


John Babbs Brandram, a native of Britain, was a graduate of Queens College, Cambridge. 
He came to Nagasaki with his sister Mary Elizabeth as a missionary for the Church 
Missionary Society on April 8, 1884. The Brandrams stayed in Nagasaki for three years 
before transferring to Kumamoto in May 1887. John married the CMS missionary Mary 
Gertrude Smith at Nagasaki in 1890. The Brandrams had four sons: John Buckley, born 
February 27, 1891 in Nagasaki; Arthur, born May 14, 1892 in Nagasaki; Thomas Caldwall, 
born October 26, 1895 in Kumamoto; and Christopher, born January 1, 1899 in Kumamoto.  

Mary Elizabeth Brandram died in Kumamoto on October 13, 1892 -- three months to the 
day after her brother went home to England on leave. John Brandram died on December 
30, 1900 a day after sailing from Japan for health reasons. He was buried in Shanghai.


Carl Ernst Boeddinghaus was born in Luttringhausen, Prussia (near Dusseldorf) on February 
3, 1834. In 1861, he came to East Asia, first working as a clerk for H. Bourjau & Co. in 
Canton. Two years later, he arrived in Nagasaki and went to work for the Prussian firm 
Textor & Co., first at Dejima, and then, from February 1866, at No. 11 Oura. In January 
1870, Boeddinghaus and Frederick Ditmter, both former Textor & Co. employees, became 
partners in Boeddinghaus, Dittmer Co. at No. 9 Dejima. In 1879, Boeddinghaus formed 
Boeddinghaus & Co. and moved to nearby No. 7 Dejima. He was an import and export 
merchant, and an agent for a variety of insurance and shipping companies. Boeddinghaus 
remained here for almost twenty years, before moving to No. 4 Dejima in 1897.  

Carl E. Boeddinghaus died at his Dejima residence on December 15, 1914 at the age of 
eighty and was buried in the addition to Sakamoto International Cemetery. In spite of the 
fact that World War One had broken out only months earlier and that as a German citizen 
Boeddinghaus was officially listed as an enemy of Japan, the Nagasaki governor and a 
number of Japanese and foreign residents attended his funeral. The fifty-one year resident 
of Nagasaki was survived by his wife, [Anna Johanna] Elisabeth Krey (born 1850 in 
Hamburg), whom he married in Shanghai on March 16, 1874, and four children born in 
Nagasaki: Dora (born on February 23, 1875), who married the German merchant Karl Luhrs 
in January 1899 and moved to Korea; [Paul Wilhelm] Ernst (born July 4, 1877) and [Karl] 
Max (born May 11, 1882) who moved to Germany, and Anna (born September 6, 1886) who 
married the German merchant August Gese in December 1905. Another child, Carl F. 
Boeddinghaus, was born on June 10, 1885, but died only six months later on November 30th 
and was buried in Oura International Cemetery.  

Elisabeth Boeddinghaus remained in Nagasaki after her husband's death, but the following 
November she was accused of spying for Germany and deported. Thus ended the long saga 
of the Boeddinghaus family in Nagasaki. Today, no tombstone commemorates the burial of 
Carl E. Boeddinghaus at Sakamoto. More than likely, it was destroyed by a conventional 
bomb attack near the end of World War Two. 

Carl E. Boeddinghaus is evident in the photograph of the Nagasaki Club members taken in 


Julius Eugen Bohlens, known as Eugene in Nagasaki, was born on May 3, 1840 in Bremen, 
Prussia. By the beginning of 1863, he was residing at Dejima with fellow Prussians Louis 
Kniffler and Gustav Reddelien. In May 1865, he worked briefly for the firm L. Kniffler & 
Company at No. 4 Dejima with Adolphus Schmidt, Reddelien, A.R. Weber and Carl Falck.  
From June to November of that year, Bohlens conducted his own business operations, 
called Bohlens & Co., at Dejima No. 10.  

From November 1865 to May 1866, Bohlens, ran his business out of Dejima No. 5, the lot 
rented by the Pignatel family of French merchants. Initially, Bohlens was the only Prussian 
on the lot, but later he was joined by Carl Lehmann and, eventually, W. L. Hartmans. All 
three Prussian merchants were probably temporarily housed at Dejima No. 5 as the waited 
the completion of neighboring structures at Dejima No. 6 and No. 7.

From June 1866, Bohlens & Co. was headquartered at Dejima No. 6. From 1865 to 1869, 
Bohlens also rented No. 34 Oura, which housed the Amsterdam Hotel, and in 1868 he rented 
the lot at No. 3 Umegasaki that housed German firm Adrian & Co.

Bohlens left Japan in 1872, arriving by ship at San Francisco in June. He was back in 
Bremen in the spring of 1873, where he married Marie Koch on April 16th. While living as a 
merchant in Bremen, Bohlens formed a partnership in 1880 with Amandus Reddelein, a 
German merchant residing in Nagasaki. Amandus was the brother of Gustav Reddelien, who 
Bohlens knew from his early days in the Japanese port town.

While Eugene Bohlens lived most of his life in Bremen, he is said to have died in Nagasaki on 
July 30, 1917 at the age of seventy-seven. There do not, however, seem to be any local 
records of his burial there.

Eugene's elder brother Heinrich Wilhelm, known as William in Japan, was born in Bremen on 
August 10, 1829. Arriving in Nagasaki in early 1870, he went to work at the German firm 
Hartmans & Company, which was situated at No. 7 Dejima, on the lot next to his brother. 
William later moved to Hyogo, where he died on June 9, 1889 at the age of fifty-nine.


Harriet Cochram was a missionary with the Church Missionary Society who completed her 
training at The Willows in England. She came to Nagasaki in 1893 with plans to take over 
the Girls' Home run by the CMS after Jane Harvey went back to England for health 
reasons. Cochram herself spent very little time in Nagasaki before being forced to leave for 
Kagoshima because the hills in Nagasaki had affected her heart condition. Along with Della 
Hunter-Brown, Harriet Cochram was the first single female missionary sent by the CMS to 


Hendrik G. Duurkoop served initially as Vice-Director of the V.O.C. factory on Dejima from 
1771 to 1773, and then as Director in 1777. In July 1778 he set sail from Batavia on board 
the Huys Tespyk to resume his duties on Dejima. During the trip, however, he became ill 
and died on July 27, 1778. His body was hermetically sealed and, after arrival in Nagasaki 
on August 15, was carried to the Dutch Cemetery at Goshinji Temple at Mt. Inasa.


August Evers was born into a merchant family in Hamburg, Prussia in 1841. In 1862, after 
completing his training at a shipping firm, he boarded a ship bound for Hong Kong. Also on 
board was the Prussian merchant, Louis Kniffler, who had worked in Hamburg as a young 
man, and who in 1859 had founded the first Prussian/German company in Japan at Dejima 
in Nagasaki. Kniffler convinced the young Evers to come to Nagasaki and work for his firm.  
Within a few years, Evers had advanced to the position of authorized signatory in L. Kniffler 
& Co.   

In 1867, Evers moved to Hyogo, where he became the local agent for L. Kniffler & Co. On 
January 1, 1868, Evers became the first Prussian consular agent in Hyogo. He stayed in the 
position until 1872, when he returned to Hamburg to form a new firm with Jules Simon, a 
German merchant that he had befriended earlier in Hyogo. 

On January 2, 1873, the joint business of Simon, Evers & Co. (SECO) was officially 
registered in Hamburg. Simon remained there as the managing director of the new firm, 
while Evers returned to Japan and headed up a branch of the company in Yokohama. There, 
Evers became Vice-Chairman of the Chamber of Commerce. After a few years, he 
returned to Hyogo, where he also served as a member of the Hyogo and Osaka Chamber of 

SECO came to supply Japan equipment and machinery to support its rapid industrialization 
in the late nineteenth century. The company continued to thrive, even after the death of its 
founders, Julius Simon in 1893 in Hamburg, and August Evers in June 1904 in Kobe. The 
trading firm survived some difficult times in WWII, but it is still a vital force in Japan and 
Asia today. 


Albert Radford Fuller was a graduate of the Church Missionary Society College at Islington, 
England. He first came to Asia as a CMS missionary to China in 1882. The following year, 
he married Mary Ellen Smith. Fuller was transferred to Nagasaki on March 21, 1889. His 
wife joined him there in 1890. That same year, Fuller became the first CMS missionary in 
Nagasaki to baptize a native Japanese. He later served as the superintending missionary 
and secretary for Kyushu. While in Nagasaki, Mrs. Fuller gave birth to two sons. Albert 
Edgar was born on April 9, 1892 but tragically he died on October 28 of the same year and 
was buried in Sakamoto International Cemetery. A second son, Ernest, was born on 
September 9, 1895 and a daughter, Margaret, in December 1898. The Fullers remained in 
Nagasaki until 1909, when they returned to England because of Mary Fuller's ill health. She 
died in a nursing home in February 1932. A.R. Fuller passed away in 1934.  


Martin Hermann Gildemeister was born in Bremen, Prussia on March 28, 1836. After 
completing his business apprenticeship, he went to Batavia to work as a clerk in a firm 
operated by the Prussian businessman Louis Kniffler. In 1859, the two sailed to Nagasaki, 
where Kniffler established L. Kniffler & Co. on Dejima. Kniffler made Gildemeister attorney 
for his firm in Japan. 

Soon afterward, however, Gildemeister left Nagasaki for Yokohama, where he opened a 
branch office of L. Kniffler & Company. In December 1862, Gildemeister became a partner 
in the firm. Another branch of the firm was later opened in Hyogo. 

Through his detailed reporting on Japan, Gildemeister came to attract the attention of 
Prussian officials. In 1866, he became the first Prussian Consul for Japan. That same year, 
Carl Illies of Hamburg came to Japan, and began to play a significant role in L. Kniffler & Co.'
s operation. 

In 1868, Gildemeister's position at the firm was eliminated, and he returned to Germany and 
made a living at buying and selling agricultural goods. In the 1870s, he was engaged in the 
trading business in London, and in 1883 he accepted an offer from his cousins to live in 
Chile and Peru, where he took over, together with Consul Hermann Schmidt, the 
management of their company Gildemeister & Compagnie Iquique (Chile). Three years later, 
Gildemeister settled in Hanover, Germany, where he worked as a businessman and a board 
member for several industrial enterprises in the city. Martin Gildemeister died on June 15, 
1918 at the age of eighty-two.


Henri Eugene Marie Gordes was born in France in 1841. He was in Nagasaki by 1862 and 
later opened a provisions business, called Henri Gordes & Co, at No. 10 Dejima. His younger 
brother Auguste opened a photography studio in Yokohama. In 1879, Auguste joined Henri 
in Nagasaki and they opened a photography studio and bakery at No. 9 Umegasaki. By 
1882, they had moved next door to No. 10 Umegasaki. Cabinent card here.  

On June 18, 1889, Henri died of paralysis at his residence at the age of forty-eight. He was 
buried at Sakamoto International Cemetery. Auguste continued to operate the bakery until 
his death five years later in November 1894, also at the age of forty-eight. Auguste was 
buried next to his brother at Sakamoto.


Hermann Ludwig Grauert was born in Lingen, Prussia on June 17, 1837, the son of a 
celebrated physician. He arrived at Dejima with his elder brother, Wilhelm Heinrich Ludwig 
Clemens Grauert, on December 3, 1857. In May 1858, Hermann Grauert made a brief visit 
to Yokohama with a group led by the Dutch Director of Trade at Dejima, Donker Curtius, 
before returning to Nagasaki. With the opening of the foreign settlement at Yokohama on 
July 1, 1859, the Grauert brothers set themselves up as merchants in Yokohama, under the 
name of Grauert & Co.

Hermann Grauert's life at Yokohama was an eventful one. In November 1861, Grauert, who 
was at this time Prussian consul of Yokohama, was attacked by two samurai who attempted 
to kill him. Although seriously wounded, Grauert survived. Two months later, he helped 
Father Girard dedicate the first Catholic Church in modern Japan. Grauert not only helped 
finance the church, but he donated some of the land on which it was built. In June 1865, he 
was also elected to the first Municipal Council in Yokohama. 

While, initially, Grauert & Co. was a financial success, the company later came to suffer a 
number of setbacks, and, as a result, Hermann's brother Wilhelm died tragically on 
November 29, 1870 at the age of forty. He was buried in the Yokohama Foreign Cemetery.

Hermann Grauert lived out his years in Yokohama as a merchant, eventually marrying a 
German national named Helene Haussler in the early 1890s. The couple had two children, 
Mary and Hermann Clemens (who later became a well-known doctor in Yokohama), born in 
1892 and 1895, respectively. Hermann Ludwig Grauert died in Yokohama on November 1, 
1901 at the age of sixty-four and was buried next to his brother.  


The Prussian (initially under Dutch protection) merchant Edward Grosser established the 
trading firm, Grosser & Co., at No. 17 Dejima in 1859. Along with Kniffler & Co. and Textor 
& Co., Grosser and Co. was one of three Prussian firms operating on Deshima in the opening 
year of the foreign settlement. By the fall of 1862, Grosser had set up his headquarters at 
No. 30 Oura. There, he came to live with a Japanese woman and their child.  

By the beginning of 1864, Grosser had opened a branch office in Yokohama in partnership 
with the Swiss merchant Fritz Abegg. At the same time, he brought in the German 
merchant Hermann Bohmeyer to assist him in Nagasaki. By November 1865, Grosser was 
gone permanently from Nagasaki, leaving Bohmeyer and Otto Schuffenhauer behind to 
manage his operation there. The two ran the firm until the summer of 1867, when 
Schuffenhauer left. Bohmeyer oversaw the operations at No. 30 Oura until the summer of 
1868, at which time he went to work at the same site for the Dutch firm Wachtels & Co.  
By early 1870, Henri Wachtels had taken on J. Henry Groos as a partner and formed the 
company Wachtels, Groos & Co. The partnership did not last long, however, and, in June 
1870, the firm went out of business, and the house at No. 30 Oura was sold at auction in 

Joining Edward Grosser in Yokohama in 1865 was his brother Friedrick. From January 1869, 
when Grosser & Co. purchased lot No. 180 from the Japanese government, the firm 
maintained its company headquarters there. Initially, both Grosser brothers, and then 
Friedrick alone, ran the family business, which had its origins in Nagasaki in 1859, out of its 
Yokohama headquarters until well into the 20th century.


By the early 1860s, [Carl Hermann] Oscar Hartmann, a merchant from Hamburg, Prussia, 
was in Nagasaki working as a clerk for the American firm Walsh & Co. at No. 3 
Higashiyamate. Since Prussia did not have a treaty with Japan until 1861, Hartmann 
initially received U.S. consular protection. Also working for Walsh & Co. at this time was 
another Prussian, Richard Lindau. Lindau served as Prussian consul in Nagasaki in the mid-
1860s, and, during his absence, Hartmann, in his role as deputy consul, conducted consular 

Hartmann remained with Walsh & Co. until the fall of 1866. In October, he teamed up with 
fellow Prussian merchant Carl Lehmann to form a new business - Lehmann, Hartmann & 
Co. They initially stayed at No. 5 Dejima (the lot rented by the French firm Pignatel & Co.), 
but in March 1867, the pair moved next door to No. 6 Dejima. While Lehmann returned to 
Prussia in the early summer of 1867 to arrange for the purchase Prussian rifles and coastal 
steamships to sell to Japanese officials in Wakayama, Hartmann ran the firm's operation at 

In November 1867, Hartmann's Japanese mistress, Osada, gave birth to the couple's second 
son, Sadakichi (the elder brother was named Taru). Unfortunately, a few months later, 
Osada passed away. Soon after this, Oscar Hartmann sent his two sons to live with his 
brother in Hamburg. Sadakichi would later make his way to the United States and become a 
well-known critic and poet, as well as an occasional actor.

Carl Lehmann returned to Japan in the autumn of 1868, and, by the end of the year, he 
and Hartmann had moved their firm to Hyogo and Osaka. Lehmann, Hartmann & Co., which 
was officially headquartered in Hamburg, briefly flourished at its new Japanese branch, but, 
by 1871, administrative changes brought about by the Meiji government meant that the firm 
could no longer maintain its monopoly with Wakayama officials. According to a newspaper 
notice, Oscar Hartmann withdrew from the firm by mutual consent on December 31, 1871.  
After this, Hartman returned to Hamburg, where he married a widow with two daughters 
from a previous marriage.   


Della Iris Hunter-Brown was sent out by the New Zealand Church Missionary Association in 
1893. Along with Harriet Cochram, Hunter-Brown became the first single female worker 
sent by the Anglican Church to Nagasaki. In 1895 Hunter-Brown transferred to 
Kagoshima. She left missionary service in 1902 when she married Rev. F.W. Rowlands.


Louis Kniffler was born in Wetzlar, Prussia on January 14, 1827. As a young man, he worked 
first in Hamburg and later in Batavia in the Dutch East Indies. While in Batavia in 1858, he 
petitioned the Prussian leadership to dispatch an expedition to Japan to negotiate a 
commercial treaty with Japanese government officials. On July 1, 1859, Kniffler founded L. 
Kniffler & Co. at Dejima, in what most consider the first Prussian/German trading house in 
Japan. Since this was before Germany, or even Prussia and the North German Federation 
for that matter, had established a commercial treaty with Japan, he was initially listed as a 
Dutch citizen in official Nagasaki records. 

Joining Kniffler in Nagasaki from the beginning was the Bremen merchant Martin Hermann 
Gildemeister (1836-1918), who had worked with Kniffler in Batavia. Soon, however, 
Gildemeister left Nagasaki for Yokohama, where he opened a branch office of L. Kniffler & 
Company. In December 1862, Gildemeister became a partner in the firm.

In January 1861, as a result of the Eulenburg Mission, the Prussian and Japanese 
governments finally signed the commercial treaty that Kniffler had been seeking, and soon 
thereafter he was named Prussian Vice-Consul in Nagasaki - a mostly symbolic title at that 
point. As a matter of fact, Kniffler was not even in Nagasaki for much of 1861, as he had 
gone to Europe. When he returned to Nagasaki in 1862, he was accompanied by a merchant 
from Hamburg named August Evers (1841-1904), whom he had met on the ship that the 
two were taking from Hamburg to Hong Kong. Kniffler convinced Evers to change his plans 
of going to China and, instead, to come work for him in Japan. (Evers later joined forces 
with the German merchant Julius Simon to form the trading firm Simon, Evers & Co. 
[SECO] in 1873. With its headquarters in Hamburg and branch offices in Japan, the 
company is still in operation today.)

After Kniffler's return to Japan in 1862, he spent time in both Nagasaki and Yokohama. By 
fall 1863, he had built impressive residences in both cities - at No. 5A Minamiyamate in 
Nagasaki overlooking the harbor and along the bund in Yokohama. The latter structure 
burned down soon after its completion in December 1863.

By 1863, Kniffler's Nagasaki office at Dejima was run by the Prussian merchants Gustav 
Reddelien and Eugene Bohlens. Two years later, Bohlens was gone and Reddelien was being 
assisted by A.R. Weber, Christian Iwersen (1842-1878) and Carl Falck (godowns manager).  
That same year, Kniffler opened a branch of his Japanese trading house in London. 

Kniffler left his office in Nagasaki in June 1866, and on September 24th of that year he 
married nineteen-year-old Hedwig Pfeffer, the daughter of a German physician. Kniffler 
moved away from the day-to-day operation of the firm, which came to be headed by 
Reddelien and Carl Illies, who had just come to Yokohama from Germany that year.

In the spring of 1869, Reddelien was in charge of the Yokohama office and Illies came to 
supervise the Nagasaki branch of L. Kniffler and Company at No. 4 Dejima.  

Louis Kniffler was residing in Dusseldorf in 1873 when he greeted the members of the 
Iwakura Mission at the Dutch-German border on their tour of Europe.  

On May 31, 1880, L. Kniffler & Co. ceased operation and its business interests in Japan 
were taken over by C. Illies & Co. After the death of Louis Kniffler at the age of fifty-three 
on May 20, 1888, the Illies trading company was moved to Hamburg, which had developed 
into the center of German trade in East Asia. 

Louis Kniffler not only founded the first German trading firm in Japan, but two of his 
employees, August Evers and Carl Illies, went on to develop companies that still maintain 
strong trade operations with Japan to this day.


On November 28, 1831, Karl [Carl] Wilhelm Heinrich Lehmann was born in the Grand Duchy 
of Oldenburg, which is presently located in northwestern Germany. As a young man, he 
gained both practical training and theoretical knowledge in shipbuilding in his homeland.  
Then, in 1853, he spent a year at a shipyard in Baltimore, Maryland (he had an uncle in the 
United States). After that, Lehmann became a shipyard director in Rotterdam.  

While in Rotterdam in 1861, Lehmann accepted a three-year contract offer from the 
Japanese government, through the Dutch East India Company, to be chief engineer at the 
new government shipyard at Nagasaki, where he would help build ships and teach 
shipbuilding techniques. Lehmann arrived in Nagasaki in April 1862, and during his time 
there, he stayed at the Netherlands Trading Society's headquarters at No. 3 Dejima. The 
project ultimately failed, however, due to political unrest and the lack of funding. The 
shipyard closed in the fall of 1865, and Lehmann lost his job.  

Carl Lehmann needed to find other work, however, because, by this time, he had a family to 
support. He was living with a Japanese woman named Kija Otoki (Otaki?), and the couple 
had a young daughter, Louise Charlotte Otoki Lehmann, who had been born in February 
1864. While back in Germany in December 1867, Carl Lehmann had his daughter christened 
in Heidelberg.

By October 1865, Lehmann had gone to work for the Prussian firm Textor & Co. at No. 11 
Dejima. At the beginning of 1866, the business transferred to No. 11 Oura and Lehmann 
moved with its offices to the site.  

In October 1866, Lehmann teamed up with fellow Prussian merchant Oscar Hartmann to 
form a new business - Lehmann, Hartmann & Co. They initially stayed at No. 5 Dejima (the 
lot rented by the French firm Pignatel & Co.), but in March 1867, the pair moved next door 
to No. 6 Dejima. 

In January 1867, Lehmann, through contacts arranged by the Dutch physician Antonius 
Bauduin, met in Hyogo with Japanese officials from the Kishu (Wakayama) and Aizu 
(Fukushima) domains to discuss the sale of Prussian needle-gun rifles and coastal 
steamships. The contracts were signed in April and May, and, by late June, Lehmann had 
departed Nagasaki for Hamburg, in order to fulfill Lehmann, Hartmann & Co.'s part of the 
agreement. Accompanying Lehmann on the journey was Majima Seiji, who became the first 
Japanese student enrolled in a German university.

Carl Lehmann returned to Nagasaki in the autumn of 1868, and, by the end of the year, he 
and Hartmann had closed their Nagasaki offices and moved their firm to Hyogo and Osaka, 
in order to be closer to their clients in Wakayama. Lehmann, Hartmann & Co., which was 
officially headquartered in Hamburg, briefly flourished in its new Japanese home, but, by 
1871, administrative changes brought about by the Meiji government meant that the firm 
could no longer maintain its monopoly with Wakayama officials. Oscar Hartmann withdrew 
from the firm by mutual consent on December 31, 1871 and returned to Hamburg. In 1873, 
Carl Lehmann contracted tuberculoses and returned to Oldenburg in late autumn. He died 
there on April 21, 1874 at the age of forty-two and was buried in the family cemetery.


Richard Lindau was born in Genthin, Prussia on May 7, 1831. He was a son of a Lutheran 
minister, the brother of four cosmopolitan Prussian intellectuals, Anna (a good friend of Karl 
Marx who was married to the Italian Jewish silk merchant and revolutionary compatriot of 
Mazzini and Garibaldi, Anselmo Vivanti), Rudolph (a diplomat, merchant and writer, who first 
came to Nagasaki in September 1859 as the charge d'affaires of a semi-official Swiss trade 
mission, served as Prussian Consul in Yokohama from 1864 to 1866, wrote, among his many 
works, books on Japan and China, headed Glover & Company's Yokohama office, and served 
as secretary at the German Embassy in Paris in the 1870s, Paul (a well-respected critic 
and playwright in Paris and Germany) and Leopold (a literary critic and librarian with the 
American Geographical Society based in New York), and the uncle of the famous poet and 
writer Annie Vivanti (daughter of Anna Lindau Vivanti).

By the mid-1850s, Richard Lindau was living in Paris as a businessman, and dabbling in 
music. He tried his hand as an opera singer, a songwriter, a poet and a translator. The 
latter venture led in 1861 to a legal battle (which Lindau lost) with the German composer 
Richard Wagner over the public translation recognition for his work on Wagner's opera "

By the beginning of 1864, Richard Lindau had joined his elder brother Rudolph in Japan.  
Richard went to work in Nagasaki for the American firm Walsh & Co., where he eventually a 
partner in October 1867.  

From August 1865, Lindau became the Prussian Consul in Nagasaki. Since he was working 
for Walsh & C. at the time, the Prussian flag flew over the Walsh & Co. residence at No. 12 
Higashiyamate. Lindau served in this capacity until September 1868. He was assisted in his 
duties by the Prussian merchants Oscar Hartmann and George Schottler.

Lindau remained with Walsh & Co. until March 1868. On April 1st, Lindau left Walsh & Co. to 
become a partner in the British firm of Alt & Co. In September, Lindau left Nagasaki but he 
remained with Alt & Co., and, from January 1, 1869, he became head of Alt & Co. in Japan.  
This arrangement remained in effect until December 31, 1870, when Alt and Lindau 
dissolved their partnership in Alt & Co.

Soon after, Richard Lindau left Japan and did some traveling, before resurfacing as consul 
for Germany in Marseille, France in 1874. He then moved on briefly to the same position in 
Bayonne, France, before settling in as the German Consul to Barcelona, Spain from 1876.  
While in Barcelona, he opened up a popular Japanese art museum in his official residence.  
Richard Lindau served as German Consul in Barcelona until the late 1890s and died in 
Heidelberg, Germany on August 31, 1900 at the age of sixty-nine.


Daniel Jerome Macgowan was born in Fall River, Massachusetts in 1812 and went to Ningbo, 
China as a medical missionary with the American Medical Mission at the age of thirty-one.  
While U.S. Vice-Consul to Ningbo in 1855, he showed an early interest in Japan by delivering 
a paper to the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society on physical phenomena in 
Japan and China. In December 1858, Macgowan received first-hand information on 
Nagasaki when he shared speaking honors at the same society with Pompe van 
Meerdervoort, the Dutch physician who was visiting from Dejima.  

It was undoubtedly Pompe van Meerdervoort who invited Macgowan to Nagasaki in the 
spring of 1859 on the missionary's way home to the United States. Macgowan spent his five 
weeks in Nagasaki teaching English and assisting Pompe van Meerdervoort with the medical 
curriculum at the naval training school. Dr. Macgowan wrote of his observations in a series 
of articles for Shanghai's North China Herald.  

In June 1862, MacGowan, who by this time was affiliated with the London Mission of 
Shanghai, visited Nagasaki with his wife for health reasons. At that time, he stayed with the 
Reformed Church missionary Guido Verbeck. Soon after, MacGowan returned to the 
United States and became a surgeon for the North in the Civil War. He returned to China 
as an agent for a Shanghai telegraph company in 1865. Jerome Macgowan died there on 25 
July 1893 at the age of seventy-nine.


Herbert Maundrell was born on July 23, 1846 in England. After graduating from the Church 
Missionary Society College at Islington, Maundrell served as one of the first two Church 
Missionary Society missionaries to Madagascar in 1863. He also spent some time in the 
Mauritius, where he met his wife, Eliza Hobbs, the daughter of the local Archdeacon. On 
June 28, 1875, Herbert and Eliza arrived in Nagasaki to replace Rev. and Mrs. Henderson 
Burnside as the CMS representatives in town.  

Herbert Maundrell wanted to begin a theological class for Japanese on Dejima, since 
foreigners were confined to the treaty port boundaries and Dejima was the closest land to 
the native city. In the summer of 1877, he received permission to begin construction of a 
college at No. 10 Dejima adjacent to the CMS church; it was finished on St. Andrew's Day, 
November 30. In honor of the occasion, the seminary came to be known as St. Andrew's 
College. The building, which still stands at its original location, is the oldest Protestant 
seminary in Japan.

In January 1879, a Day School for Japanese children was added at No. 11 Dejima, but it 
was shut down due to a lack of funds in 1883. The Maundrells went on leave from March 
1884 to May 1886. While they were away, the CMS Committee in England decided to go 
with only one college in Japan, and that this would be the seminary in Osaka. When 
Maundrell returned to Nagasaki B this time as a newly-appointed Archdeacon B he faced 
the permanent closing of St. Andrew's. The following year, events took an ever-sadder 
personal turn when Eliza Maundrell developed typhoid fever and died on March 11 after a 
six-week bout with the disease. She was buried in Oura International Cemetery.

Herbert Maundrell returned to England for a scheduled leave at the end of 1889 or the 
beginning of 1890. Unfortunately, he became ill and never returned to Japan. He retired 
from missionary service in 1893 and died on December 5, 1913 at the age of sixty-seven.


Ernest O. Mills was in Nagasaki with his wife Grace by 1921. For the first couple of years, 
they lived at No. 9 Dejima, but later moved to Nakagawa-go. Ernest Mills was born in 
Wisconsin on March 4, 1873. He came to Japan initially as an English teacher with the Y.M.
C.A. in 1908, teaching at Chofu in Yamaguchi Prefecture. After completing his contract, he 
joined the Southern Baptist Mission in Japan. In 1912, he married Grace Anne Hughes, a 
Northern Baptist missionary from Missouri who had worked in Osaka and Sendai since 1900.

The Millses were stationed in Fukuoka, where Ernest taught school and Grace supervised a 
kindergarten. In 1914, Ernest began to work as a railroad evangelist. By the time the 
couple came to Nagasaki, the station was considered to be on the outer fringes of the 
Mission B as was Mills himself. He was described as a "Yankee with a Northern Baptist wife, 
a layman with no seminary training (he was ordained at age 53 while on his next furlough), a 
small and meek poet who always wore a wig."

After barely surviving an operation in Japan, Grace Mills died of cancer in Long Beach, 
California on July 16, 1932 at the age of sixty. Little is known of Ernest Mills' time in 
Nagasaki, other than that he was President of the American Association from 1935 to 1936 
and that he was still teaching Bible classes in the city in 1940. He stayed in Nagasaki until 
September 15, 1940, when the Mission ordered him home. After his regular furlough, he 
retired. He spent his retirement years in Texas and passed away on January 1, 1962 at the 
age of eight-eight. 


Among Nagasaki residents, one of the most famous romances involving a Westerner and a 
Japanese surrounds the Frenchman Victor Leopold Pignatel. How much truth there is to 
the story, however, is open to debate. 

Victor Pignatel came from an old French family with its origins in Italy. Victor's grandfather, 
Jean-Pierre August Pignatel, and Jean-Pierre's brother, Marceau, were born and raised in 
Lyon, the center of the French silk industry. Together, they formed a successful silk 
commission agency headquartered in the city. Jean-Pierre and his wife had five children, 
the eldest being Eugene, who was born in Lyon on September 21, 1818. On Christmas day 
1839, at the age of twenty-one, Eugene married Priscilla Browne in Manchester, England. 
The newlyweds promptly moved to the bustling Italian port town of Livorno, Italy, where 
they spent more than a decade. Livorno was one of the main trading centers for Italian silk 
and a financial center of the region. There, Eugene and Priscilla had five children: Lucie 
(1840), Emma (1843), Maria (1845), Victor (1846) and Charles (1848), and Eugene worked 
successfully as a merchant. A sixth child, Alice, was born in Lancashire, England in 1851, 
soon after their return to Manchester. 

In January 1846, with Eugene still in Livorno, his father passed away and Eugene inherited 
the family business. Seven months later (August 18th), Victor, Eugene's eldest son, was 
born. Eugene remained in Livorno, and came to play an active role in the chaotic Revolution 
of 1848. In September of that year, he became a member of the liberal provincial 
government commission that gained control in Livorno. Two months later (November 18th), 
his son Charles was born. In January 1850, when more conservative forces came to power 
in the town under the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Eugene was nominated to be the Tuscan 
Consul at Lyon. Whether he ever served in this capacity is unclear, but it is known that 
Eugene and his family had returned to England by the end of the year. 

That same year, Marceau Pignatel, Eugene's uncle, retired from an active role in the family 
silk business, and the focus of the business changed somewhat. In 1852, Eugene, Marceau, 
Charles Meunier (Marceau's nephew) and Ferdinand Genth formed a partnership called 
Pignatel, Genth & Co., Merchants and Commercial Agents, based in Manchester. With 
Marceau's death and the silkworm disease outbreak in Europe that devastated the French 
silk industry in 1855, the firm struggled and then dissolved in May 1857. 

Eugene transferred his business operations to Nagasaki in May 1860. In October 1860, he 
purchased property at what would become No. 5 Dejima from the merchant H.H. Spengler, 
whose business had twice burned down. Pignatel also rented No. 10 Oura along the 
waterfront. His original business interests revolved in part around trying to purchase 
Japanese silk and possibly Japanese silkworms for delivery to his hometown of Lyon, in an 
effort to revive the silk industry there. 

Two years later, Eugene's cousin Jean Etienne Victor (Marceau's son and heir), who was a 
silk merchant in Lyon, established a branch office in Chefoo [Yantai], China in part to 
investigate Chinese silk export possibilities. Victor returned to Lyon the following year, 
where he helped establish the powerful Credit Lyonnaise Bank. The same year, Eugene was 
joined in Nagasaki by his two teenage sons, seventeen-year-old Victor Leopold and his 
younger brother Charles. Together they operated Pignatel & Co., a business that by this 
time dealt mainly in food provisions and European wines, at No. 5 Dejima. The firm also 
imported some of the materials used in the construction of Oura Catholic Church. 

Not making the trip to Nagasaki was Eugene's wife Priscilla and their four daughters, and it 
appears that he never saw them again. It is possible that he had a relationship with a 
Japanese woman while in Nagasaki, because later accounts speak of Eugene's sons having 
two half-sisters. Upon Eugene Pignatel's death in Nagasaki on September 8, 1870 at the age 
of fifty-one, the family business was carried on by his two sons. The man who two decades 
earlier had played a key role in the Revolution of 1848 in Italy, was an early member of the 
Nagasaki foreign settlement Municipal Council and he lived long enough to witness the Meiji 
Restoration in Japan. 

According to Japanese accounts, not too long after the death of his father, Victor Pignatel 
fell in love with and later married a Japanese woman named Masaki from the Maruyama 
pleasure district. After three years of marriage, however, Masaki died of a sudden illness. 
Apparently, Victor was unable to forget his one true love and remained single for the rest of 
his life \ treasuring a red-lacquer pillow that she had left behind. How much of the story is 
true is difficult to ascertain, but it is known that Victor never remarried and that he lived 
out his life as a virtual recluse in Nagasaki. 

Besides assisting in the family business, Charles Pignatel worked for the French consulate in 
Nagasaki in 1865 and taught at the domain school in neighboring Saga in 1874. He returned 
to England in the early 1880s to work for the London branch of Credit Lyonnais, the bank 
headquartered in Lyon that his cousin had helped found in 1863. There he married a 
German native named Victoria and they had a son named Ernest. Charles later moved to 
the Paris branch of the same bank and died in that city in October 1917. 

Victor remained in Nagasaki to run the family company there. Two of the sisters who stayed 
behind in England married into British money: the younger sister, Alice, married Sir Archibald 
Geikie in 1871, and the following year the elder sister, Emma, wed the publisher Alexander 
Macmillan. Emma in particular played a prominent role in British literary circles, and was 
influential in broadening her husband's interest in Italian art and culture. Of the remaining 
two sisters, both died in England, Maria in 1865 at the young age of twenty and Lucie in 
1928 at the age of eighty-eight \ neither married. 

Victor Pignatel, who at seventy-five was the oldest foreign resident in Nagasaki at the time 
of his death, died at his Dejima residence after a short illness on January 30, 1922. He was 
buried in Sakamoto International Cemetery. Upon his passing, The Nagasaki Press noted 
that "For years Mr. Pignatel has lived a very retired life and as he has taken no part in 
social life here, very few of the residents knew him personally." 

Apparently, Victor was not as anti-social as he appeared, however, as upon his death, part 
of his will was contested by his Japanese maid. His estate, which was divided among J.M. 
Figueiredo of Shanghai and Charles Mitchell of Kobe (who were said to be the sons of Victor'
s two half sisters) and Mrs. A.C. de Souza of Nagasaki \ consisted of bank deposits, the 
residence at Dejima, the Nagasaki Club land lot (No. 10 Oura), and a home and grounds on 
the hill at Minamiyamate. The latter was contested by the Japanese maid, who claimed that 
Pignatel had given the property to her on his deathbed in the presence of witnesses. The 
maid's claim was later rejected and the property went to Mrs. de Souza, who continued to 
live on the premises.


[Wilhelm] Gustav [Heinrich] Reddelien of Hamburg, Germany was born in 1839. He came to 
Nagasaki in 1860 to work for L. Kniffler & Co. on Dejima. Initially, Reddelien was under 
American protection because Prussia had no treaty with Japan until 1861. While in 
Nagasaki, he fathered children with a Japanese woman named Fukui Tsune.  

From 1863, Reddelien came to manage the affairs of L. Kniffer and Co. in Nagasaki. He 
remained in this capacity until the spring of 1869 when he transferred to Yokohama, in 
order to supervise the affairs of L. Kniffler & Co.'s headquarters in that city. He remained 
in that capacity even after the company discontinued operations in 1880 and was taken 
over by Illies & Co. The latter firm moved its company headquarters to Hamburg in 1888 
(while still retaining branch offices in Yokohama and Kobe), and Reddelien himself moved 
back to Hamburg in late 1892. His wife Tsune had passed away by this time, as is evident 
from the January 1887 petition for her death certificate on behalf of their children. 

Although Gustav Reddelien left Nagasaki in 1869, his brother, Amandus Reddelien, arrived in 
the city the following year to work for L. Kniffler & Co., and by 1877 he had established A. 
Reddelien & Co. at No. 4 Dejima \ the site of the former Kniffler headquarters at 
Nagasaki. From 1877 to 1889, Amandus Reddelien served as both the Dutch Consul and 
the Norwegian/Swedish Consul in Nagasaki.  

By December 1879, Amandus Reddelien was living with his wife at No. 6 Dejima. About a 
year later, the couple welcomed the arrival of a daughter. In July 1882, a son, Gustav 
[Heinrich] Reddelien was born. The family moved to No. 4 Dejima in 1887 and remained 
there until their departure for Germany in September 1889. Amandus briefly came back 
alone to Nagasaki in 1893, but he did not stay long. His eldest son, Gustav (1882-1938), 
became a university professor in Leipzig, and his youngest son, Wilfried (1899-1954), was a 

G. Reddelien, a native of Germany, was in Nagasaki by 1862 working for L. Kniffler & Co.  
Initially, Reddelien was under American protection because Prussia had no treaty with 
Japan in the early days of the foreign settlement. While in Nagasaki, he fathered children 
with a Japanese woman named Fukui Tsune. In January 1887, the children petitioned for a 
death certificate for Fukui. Although G. Reddelien disappeared from Nagasaki listings in the 
late 1860s, an A. Reddelien shows up in 1872 and by 1877 he had established A. Reddelien & 
Co. at No. 4 Dejima. From 1877 to 1889, A. Reddelien served as both the Dutch Consul and 
the Norwegian/Swedish Consul in Nagasaki. In September 1889, Reddelien returned to 


Janus Rhijnhoud was born at Goes in Zeeland, the Netherlands in 1816. He was in Nagasaki 
by the beginning of 1863 and worked as a constable for the municipal council in the foreign 
settlement. Rhijnhoud died on January 24, 1870 at the age of fifty-three and was buried at 
the Dutch Cemetery at Goshinji. His tombstone was erected by a geisha named Yatsuhashi 
from the Ofujiya House.


N.C. Sieburgh was a retired Lieutenant in the Dutch Navy. He was born in Amsterdam on 
October 18, 1827 and died at Dejima on June 27, 1862 at the age of thirty-four. He is 
buried at the Dutch Cemetery at Inasa.


Henry Duppe Toovey was a merchant silk inspector for Gibb, Livingston & Co. of Shanghai.  
He was born in Westerham, Kent, England. He died of dysentery at the Dejima office of 
Frielink & Co. on November 7, 1859 at the age of twenty-nine. He has tombstones at both 
the Dutch Cemetery at Inasa and Inasa International Cemetery.


Thomas van Triet was Captain of the Dutch ship Roosenberg. He was born in Rotterdam 
and died at Dejima on October 16, 1787. He is buried at the Dutch Cemetery at Inasa.


Hendrik de Wijn was Master of the Willemina en Clara. He was born on the island of Texel in 
the Netherlands and died on the way from Batavia to Nagasaki on January 8, 1857. He is 
buried in the Dutch Cemetery at Inasa.


Jacob van Zameren was born in the Netherlands in 1822. At the age of forty, he found 
himself in Nagasaki working on Dejima as a shipchandler. By May 1868, van Zameren was 
operating a store at No. 8 Dejima. In addition to his storekeeping duties, he also served as a 
marine surveyor for the French Consulate in town. Japanese records show that by August 
1868, van Zameren had a son and daughter living with him at his store on Dejima. These 
were probably the children of a Japanese woman from Nagasaki. Jacob van Zameren died 
on February 21, 1869 at the age of forty-six and was buried in the Dutch Cemetery at