Higashiyamate Stories


By treaty, the United States was authorized to establish a consulate in Nagasaki by the 
time of the opening of the foreign settlement in July 1859. When U.S. Consul-General 
Townshend Harris arrived in Nagasaki in late April 1859, a few American merchants had 
already established themselves in town. At the beginning of May, Harris designated one of 
these merchants, a New York businessman named John G. Walsh, as U.S. Consul to 
Nagasaki. Walsh, who headed the trading firm Walsh & Co., was chosen by Harris out of 
necessity, since Congress had not yet provided for the appointment of anyone to the post.  
As he awaited the completion of the foreign settlement, he established the first U.S. 
consulate in the Japanese section of the city at Hirobaba.
John Walsh was unique among the men who served as U.S. Consul to Nagasaki. He was, for 
all practical purposes, little more than an acting merchant-consul who was permitted to 
conduct his own private business while serving as consul without pay. His main duties were 
to serve as the consular magistrate and to maintain various official records for the U.S. 

Walsh was replaced as consul in October 1865 by Willie P. Mangum, the nephew and adopted 
son of a famous North Carolina judge and presidential candidate of the same name. Three 
weeks after arriving in Nagasaki, he had a new U.S. Consulate built on Minamiyamate. In 
March 1880, Mangum was appointed consul to Tientsin, China by President Hayes, but 
before taking office he sailed to Korea with Commodore Robert Shufeldt as a translator.  
Unfortunately, Mangum became ill in Korea and returned to Nagasaki in mid-June. He 
served until the end of June and then departed for Tientsin. Mangum never completely 
recovered from his illness, however, and died in Tientsin in February 1881. 

Mangum was replaced as U.S. Consul to Nagasaki by General Alexander C. Jones, a native 
Virginian who had served as a major in the 44th Virginia Army under Robert E. Lee during 
the Civil War. Jones took charge of the consulate on July 1, 1881; by this time the office 
had been moved to Higashiyamate. In 1885 Jones was forced to find another site for the 
American consulate when the proprietor sold the Higashiyamate lot. He eventually rented a 
lot across town again at No. 14 Minamiyamate, the old Alt house. In June 1885, Jones was 
told that he was being replaced as U.S. Consul to Nagasaki. Alexander Jones, accompanied 
by his wife and infant daughter, left for the United States on October 6. In November 1886, 
he was appointed Consul to Chinkiang, China, where he remained until his death in January 

Jones' successor was John Birch, a native of Pennsylvania, who at the time of his 
appointment was the Superintendent of Schools at Wheeling, West Virginia. In recognition 
for organizing and heading the Young Men's Democratic Club, Birch was appointed consul at 
Nagasaki by the new Democratic President Grover Cleveland. When Birch arrived in 
Nagasaki, the old consulate building was being taken over by the British government, so he 
rented land nearby and built a new American consulate there. With the election of the 
Republican President Benjamin Harrison in the U.S. in early 1890, Birch was in jeopardy of 
losing his post in Nagasaki. In hopes of averting his transfer, in May a large group of foreign 
and native residents of Nagasaki submitted a petition to Harrison asking him to reappoint 
Birch. The petition proved unsuccessful, however, and in June word was received that Birch 
had been relieved of his post. Almost immediately Birch learned that he had been 
reappointed principal of the Linsly Institute, a prominent boys' school in Wheeling that he 
had earlier headed. 

William H. Abercrombie, a native of New York but living in Jersey City, New Jersey at the 
time of his appointment in May 1890, took over for birch. Abercrombie had been a 
physician for eighteen years prior to being appointed consul, and his sole qualification for 
office apparently was that he was the nephew of Admiral Robert Shufeldt, who had strong 
connections with the Republican administration. Abercrombie arrived in Nagasaki in August 
1890, but it was not until November that the town was declared free of cholera (over 2500 
people, mostly Japanese, had died). What effect the outbreak of cholera may have had on 
the newly arrived consul is difficult to judge, but almost from the beginning Abercrombie 
complained of poor health and took a number of medical leaves. 

In January 1898 Abercrombie was replaced and he returned to his home in Yonkers, New 
York, apparently never holding another diplomatic position again. In poor health from the 
beginning, Abercrombie did little to distinguish himself as consul to Nagasaki, and certainly 
was not held in the esteem that his two immediate predecessors had been by the people of 
the town. 

Charles B. Harris, who replaced Abercrombie, was born in Goshen, Indiana in December 
1843. He enlisted in Company B, 13th Indiana Volunteers, in April 1861 and was honorably 
discharged for disability in December of the same year. At various times after that he was 
engaged in banking, farming, stock-raising and the dairy business, and was President of the 
Indiana State Board of Agriculture upon his appointment to consul at Nagasaki in October 
1897. Harris arrived in Nagasaki in January 1898. In May 1899 all U.S. consular courts in 
Japan were told to dispose of their cases prior to July 17 when they would lose their 
jurisdiction in accordance with the U.S.-Japan treaty of November 1894. From January 
1899 to December 1901 the American consulate was located on the Oura bund. In January 
1902, however, it was moved once again to No.12 Higashiyamate, where it remained until 
May 1921. On March 30, 1907 Harris was appointed Consul to Reichenberg, Austria, 
although he remained at his post in Nagasaki until mid-April.  

Harris' departure from Nagasaki marked the end of a forty-two year period in which 
American consuls were chosen primarily because of their political connections. Consuls in 
this period had no legal training and little or no prior experience. Their duties revolved 
around serving as consular magistrate (until July 1899), keeping a wide variety of records, 
and acting as the social leader of the American community in Nagasaki. With the 
reorganization of the U.S. consular system in 1906, the method for selecting consuls was 
drastically altered. No longer was a person's political contribution to the party in power the 
primary criterion for selection. Instead, consuls were chosen from a pool of foreign service 
officials who had already established themselves through prior diplomatic service -- more 
often than not in Japan.  

The first person to be assigned to Nagasaki after the 1906 reforms was George H. 
Scidmore, a long-time official at the U.S. Consulate at Yokohama. Scidmore was in a sense 
a transitional figure between the old system of appointment and the new, having been 
initially assigned to Japan in 1884, but representing a very different kind of official than the 
ones sent to Nagasaki in the earlier period. Scidmore, born in Dubuque, Iowa in October 
1854, entered the U.S. consular service in 1877 when he was appointed Vice-Consul at 
Dunferline, Scotland. Seven years later he came to Japan as Vice-Consul at Osaka and 
Hyogo. He remained in Japan after that, except for brief stints in Shanghai and Fiji. He 
spent most of his time with the American Consulate in Yokohama and the American 
Embassy in Tokyo. Scidmore stayed only two years in Nagasaki, and was promoted to 
Consul at Kobe in August 1909.   

Replacing Scidmore in Nagasaki was Carl F. Deichman, who was born in St. Louis, Missouri in 
November 1871. Deichman was in business in St. Louis until 1899, when he joined the U.S. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey. In March 1907 he was appointed U.S. Consul to Manzanilla, 
Mexico, followed by similar duty at Tamsui, Formosa from 1908 to 1909. Arriving in Nagasaki 
in mid-August 1909, Deichman almost immediately applied for a transfer. Unable to achieve 
this, he instead took a sixty day leave to the U.S. in October 1910 -- somehow managing to 
extend it to six months. Deichman had to wait until May 1915 before he was transferred to 
Consul at Bombay.

E. Carlton Baker followed Deichman as U.S. Consul to Nagasaki. Baker, who was born in 
July 1882, received his B.S. from the University of California in 1905. In January 1906 he 
was appointed Vice-Consul and Marshal to Foochow, China, and from 1907 to 1908 he held 
the same position at Amoy. He was reassigned to Foochow in 1908, and then in February 
1909 he was transferred to the Department of State as assistant to the chief of the 
Division of Far Eastern Affairs. He did not remain there for long, however, as later in the 
year he was appointed Consul to Antung, China. In August 1911 Baker was appointed 
Consul to Chungking, where he remained until his transfer to Nagasaki. Appointed in 
December 1914, Baker arrived in Nagasaki with his wife and his sister in May 1915. Baker 
stayed in Nagasaki only eighteen months before being transferred to Mukden as U.S. 
Consul. Primarily a China specialist in the foreign service, Baker spent little time in Japan.  

The next three U.S. Consuls to Nagasaki further reflected the changes in the foreign service 
that occurred in 1906. All three initially came to Japan as student interpreters between 
1907 and 1912 and worked their way up the diplomatic ladder. Thus the consuls that 
served in Nagasaki after 1916 not only had prior diplomatic service, but some of this service 
occurred in Japan and they were skilled in the Japanese language.  

 Replacing Baker in Nagasaki was Edwin L. Neville, a native of Cleveland, Ohio who was born 
in November 1884. After receiving a B.A. from the University of Michigan in 1907, Neville 
went to Japan as a student interpreter in August of the same year. He later spent time at 
both Dairen and Seoul as Vice-Consul. In September 1913 he was appointed Consul to 
Antung, China, and the following year transferred to the same position at Taihoku, Formosa.  
It was while serving at this post that he was named Consul to Nagasaki in November 1916.  
Neville's three year tenure in Nagasaki, while basically uneventful, saw him twice confined to 
bed because of illness. Finally, in December 1919 he was transferred back to the U.S. to 
work at the Far Eastern Division of the Department of State. 

The new Consul to Nagasaki replacing Neville was Raymond S. Curtice, a native of 
Connecticut who was assigned to Nagasaki in December 1919 but did not arrive at the port 
until March 1920. Curtice, who had first come to Japan as a Student Interpreter in 1910, 
was married to the daughter of Rev. and Mrs. W.B. Scranton of Kobe. Prior to his arrival in 
Nagasaki, Curtice had served with the U.S. foreign service in Tokyo, Yokohama, Seoul, 
Dairen, and the Foreign Affairs Division of the Department of State, but Nagasaki was his 
first appointment as Consul. Curtice's tenure in Nagasaki began pleasantly enough, as 
within three months of his arrival, his third child was born. Conditions would deteriorate 
rapidly, however, and by September the Consul General at Large was in Nagasaki to 
investigate Curtice. In August 1921 Curtice was ordered to proceed to Washington D.C. In 
the meantime, an auditor was sent by the U.S. government to further investigate Curtice's 
finances. The auditor concluded that Curtice had embezzled and should be fined. Raymond 
Curtice sailed for San Francisco on December 4, 1921, arriving on the 26th. He then 
proceeded to Washington, and later to a Wilmington, Delaware hotel, to await the results of 
the investigation of his case. On February 15, 1922 Curtice committed suicide in his hotel 
room with an old Japanese automatic revolver. 

At the beginning of November 1922, Henry Hitchcock took charge as U.S. Consul in 
Nagasaki. Hitchcock, who had served earlier in Nagasaki on an interim basis, was a native of 
Canton Centre, Connecticut, having been born there in March 1887. Upon graduating from 
Yale in 1909, Hitchcock was sent to Japan as a Student Interpreter with the American 
Embassy in Tokyo in 1912. In 1914 he was assigned to the consulate in Yokohama, and in 
1915 he was promoted to Vice-Consul there. Hitchcock served as Vice-Consul in Nagasaki 
from mid-1916 to early 1917. After marrying in March 1919 in New Jersey, he was assigned 
as Consul to Taihoku, Formosa, where he remained until November 1922 and his transfer to 
Nagasaki. In November 1924, Hitchcock was temporarily assigned duty at the Consulate 
General in Tokyo. Vice-Consul Lawrence Salisbury ran the consulate in Nagasaki during his 
absence. In March and again in May, Hitchcock also temporarily took over for the Consul at 
Kobe. This duty lasted until mid-November. On February 21, 1933, Hitchcock took a sick 
leave to go to Yokohama to have his tonsils removed. Five days later, he suffered a mild 
heart attack at the home of his cousin in Yokohama. Apparently recovered, he entered the 
hospital the following day, and on February 28 he underwent the operation to remove his 
tonsils. All seemingly went well, but on March 1 while talking to his cousin he was stricken 
with a sudden heart attack and died almost instantly. Mrs. Hitchcock, who had stayed 
behind in Nagasaki, was notified of her husband's death, which occurred less than a week 
before his 46th birthday. The body was cremated March 3, and memorial services were 
held in Yokohama the following day. Hitchcock was survived by his wife, three children, aged 
eight to fifteen, and his mother in Nagasaki, and three sisters in America. 

Glen Bruner, a local Methodist missionary, was serving as Vice-Consul in Nagasaki at the 
time of Hitchcock's death. He operated the consulate there until October 1933, when Carl 
O. Spamer of Maryland came to assume the office of Consul. Bruner remained as Vice-
Consul. Little is known of Spamer's three year tenure in Nagasaki. He served as Consul 
until September 1936, when he retired from the foreign service. Upon retirement, Spamer 
and his wife settled in Summit, New Jersey. 

Spamer was followed in Nagasaki by Edward S. Maney of Texas, who was assigned to the 
post in December 1936, but did not arrive until February 1937. Maney`s stay was brief 
indeed, as in August he was named a Secretary in the Diplomatic Service of the U.S., and in 
September he was appointed Consul to London. He was ordered to wait in Nagasaki for the 
arrival of his successor before departing. 

Maney was replaced by Arthur F. Tower of New York in October. Tower remained in 
Nagasaki except for leaves of absences to the U.S. in April 1938, November 1939, and 
November 1940. In January 1941, as relations between Japan and the United States 
continued to worsen, his wife and children were sent, for reasons of safety, to Hawaii -- a 
choice that later in the year would prove quite ironic. On June 23 Tower was ordered to 
close immediately the consulate at Nagasaki and to proceed to Kobe to assume charge 
there. Tower left Nagasaki on August 4, and after a brief stop in Kobe, proceeded to Tokyo 
for consultations. On August 11 he assumed charge of the Kobe Consulate. He was still in 
charge when Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 8. Arthur Tower remained in Japan 
until the middle of 1942, when he was repatriated on the S.S. Gripsholm, which arrived in 
New York City on August 12, 1942. 


George S. Morrison was appointed the first British consul at Nagasaki but was unable to 
arrive in Japan before the opening of the foreign settlement on July 1, 1859. Serving in this 
capacity until Morrison arrived was C. Pemberton Hodgson, who arrived in Nagasaki on June 
13, 1859 and supervised the establishment of the British consulate in rented rooms at 
Myogyoji, a Buddhist temple overlooking Nagasaki Harbor near the site of the proposed 
foreign settlement.  

George S. Morrison finally arrived in Nagasaki on August 6, 1859. He served as British 
Consul until December 1863. During this tour of duty in Nagasaki, he helped to establish 
regulations for British citizens in Nagasaki, negotiated with Japanese officials about living 
and business conditions in the foreign settlement, made plans for a new enlarged British 
consulate, and generally hammered out guidelines for the treaty port of Nagasaki based 
upon his experiences in China. Morrison and other British officials were attacked by 
samurai from the Mito domain on the night of July 5, 1861 at the Legation in Edo, and the 
Nagasaki consul returned to England to recuperate. Morrison came back to Nagasaki in 
April 1863 and supervised the removal of the British Consulate to Green's Hotel, a large 
building erected at No.11 Minamiyamate by Matthew Green, who had been working as a 
constable at the consulate.

Conditions for foreigners in Nagasaki deteriorated in 1863. Satsuma and Choshu officials 
had challenged the Tokugawa Shogunate and threatened to kill foreigners in the treaty 
ports. Morrison sought protection from the Royal Navy, and the British residents of 
Nagasaki slept with revolvers under the pillows. The crisis was eventually resolved, but 
Morrison soon resigned and returned permanently to England. A reported plot to 
assassinate Morrison relayed to him by Thomas Glover probably hastened his decision to 
leave. George Morrison retired from the British Consular Service at age thirty-one due to 
poor health. Retirement must have suited him well, because he lived another thirty years 
after leaving Nagasaki. He died on August 20, 1893 at the age of sixty-two.

In 1865, Abel A.J. Gower, who had taken over as British consul the previous year, moved 
the consulate to No.9 Higashiyamate, renting a two-story building from Glover & Co. 
(representatives for Dent & Co., holders of the perpetual lease). Gower was succeeded by 
Marcus O. Flowers and then by James Troup, who moved the British consulate from No.9 
Higashiyamate to No.6 Oura in 1882. The stone warehouse at the rear of the property, 
formerly the premises of Maltby & Co., was converted into a consular jail. Two years later, 
Charles Sutton (the holder of the perpetual lease) sold the buildings at No.6 Oura to Her 
British Majesty's First Commissioner of Works for $2,130 (Mexican dollars).  

In 1904, the Nagasaki British consulate was moved to a temporary location at No.47 
Sagarimatsu to allow for the construction of a new building at No.6 Oura. Designed by 
William Cowan of the Office of Works in Shanghai, the new premises consisted of a rather 
subdued two-story brick and stone main building with separate accommodations for British 
and Japanese staff and gardens enclosed by a stone wall. The consuls who served here 
over the following years included F.W. Playfair, A..M. Chalmers, Ralph G.E. Forster, J.B. 
Rentiers, J.T. Wawn, Thomas G. Harrington, Oswald White, and M. Paske-Smith. The last 
Nagasaki British Consul, Ferdinand C. Greatrex, was detained along with his wife by 
Japanese police after the outbreak of World War Two in 1941 and returned to England on 
an exchange ship the following year.

After the war, no effort was made to revive the consulate in Nagasaki, and the British 
government sold the property to Nagasaki City in 1955. The building was used an a science 
museum and later art gallery. Designated an "Important Cultural Asset" by the Japanese 
government in 1990. Today the red-brick building still stands on the site.


From July 1859 to November 1862, three European merchants, none of them French, 
served as Acting Consuls for the French government in Nagasaki. The first was Kenneth R. 
Mackenzie, a British merchant who was the local representative of Jardine, Matheson & 
Co. He served in this capacity from the opening of the foereign settlement to June 1861.  
The French flag flew over the rented Japanese house near Myogyoji Temple that Mackenzie 
used as his private residence. William F. Gaymans, a Swiss merchant under French 
protection, took over briefly in 1861 before being replaced by Portuguese merchant Jose 
Loureiro. Loureiro remained in the position until November 1862.  

On November 21, 1862, Leon Dury was appointed French Vice-Consul in Nagasaki. Dury 
was a French doctor who had been brought to Japan by a missionary friend to open a 
hospital in Hakodate. He later found work as the French Vice-Consul in Yokohama before 
coming to Nagasaki. From April 1864, Dury ran French government affairs out of his office 
at No. 42C Oura and later at No. 7 Minamiyamate. In June 1870, he left to become a 
French language teacher in Kyoto. 

Dury was succeeded by M. Rousset, who came down from Yokohama. Soon afterward, the 
French Consulate was closed because of war with Prussia. It did not reopen until April 
1886, with E. Frandon as Vice-Consul heading operations at No. 12 Sagarimatsu (Oura). In 
April 1891, F. Steenackers took over as Vice-Consul and moved the French Consulate to 
No. 13 Oura. In 1903, the Consulate was moved to No. 3 Higashiyamate, where Gustave 
Gaudareau was in charge. The French Consulate closed once again in May 1908. First the 
British Consulate, and then, from July 1909 to 1919, the Russian Consulate was placed in 
charge of French interests in Nagasaki.  

Between the two world wars, French government interests in Nagasaki were conducted by 
the resident French merchants Jules Vachier, F. Charbonnel and Andre Boucly. For most 
of the period, affairs were managed by Vachier, a commercial agent who came to Nagasaki 
in 1907. Vachier settled at No. 42C Oura at about the time he became Acting French 
Consul in 1920. He served in this capacity until his death from chronic uremia in July 1939.  
Boucly ran French government affairs out of his house at No. 13A Higashiyamate until the 
beginning of hostilities in World War Two.


The initial Portuguese Consul in Nagasaki was the British merchant Joseph Evans, who from 
1859 to 1861 was the local representative of Dent & Co. at No. 1 Oura. In 1861, Jose 
Loureiro, a Portuguese merchant, took over and directed the consulate for nearly a decade 
at No. 10 Higashiyamate. From this time on, except for two brief stints when the American 
Consul supervised Portuguese affairs (1870-71 and 1888), merchants attached to Ringer & 
Co. at No. 7 Oura looked after Portuguese interests in Nagasaki. These merchants 
included Thomas Glover, A.B. Glover, Frederick Krebs, Frederick Ringer, P.J. Buckland and 
Sydney Ringer.


The first Russian Consular Agent in Nagasaki was Alexander E. Philippeus (Aleksandr E. 
Fillipeus) who served from November 1868 to March 1869 at No. 9 Minamiyamate and then 
again from October 1870 to 1871 at No. 17 Minamiyamate. Alexander E. Philippeus (also 
listed as Philippen, Philipens, Philippin, and Philippeu) listed as Russian Consul/Russian 
Consular Agent in Japanese official correspondence of Meiji 1, 11th month, 8th day (Nov. 8, 
1868). Listed this way until March 11, 1869. J.W. Leembruggen was listed as Consul from 
April 18, 1869 to October 8, 1870. Philippes was listed again from October 1870 to 
February 4, 1871. By January 6, 1872 George Westphal, the Consul for North Germany 
(Prussia) was signing for Russian interests. Philippeus was a Russian merchant from St. 
Petersburg who was a prominent figure in the fur trade at Kamchatka. He served, for all 
practical purposes, as a merchant consul.

While Philippeus was away from April 1869 to October 1870, Johannes W. Leembruggen, a 
Dutch-born Prussian national under American protection, and an employee of the American 
firm Walsh & Co., served as Acting Consul. During this interim period, the Russian flag flew 
over the Walsh & Co. property at No. 12 Higashiyamate. From 1872 to 1875, the German 
Consul (filled by a resident German merchant) looked after Russian interests as Acting 
The first Russian Consul to have had diplomatic training was Alexander E. Olarovsky 
(Aleksandr E. Olorovskii), who had previously worked at consulates in China and was serving 
as Acting Russian Consul in Hakodate at the time of his appointment to Nagasaki in 1875.
The French, English and Russian speaking Olarovsky established the Russian consulate at 
No. 5A Minamiyamate. He purchased the property and accompanying buildings from the 
American Consul Willie Mangum, who was moving his office and residence across town. The 
Russian consulate remained at No. 5A Minamiyamate for the next fifty years.

Olarovsky served as Russian Consul in Nagasaki until mid-1880. Replacing him on a 
temporary basis was Vasili I. Kostileff (Vasilii I. Kostylev), who was working as a student 
interpreter at the Russian Legation in Tokyo when he was appointed Acting Consul in 
Nagasaki. [Lensen]Upon Olarovsky's appointment as Consul-General for Russia in San 
Francisco in mid-1881, Kostileff remained in Nagasaki until the new Consul, P. Rumine 
(Oscar P. Rumin), arrived in June. 

Kostileff returned to Nagasaki in 1883, this time as Consul. He remained in office until June 
1900, except for brief periods when Gregory A. de Wollant (Grigory/Gregoire A. de Wollant) 
served intermittently as Acting Consul from 1887 to1892, and M. Oustinoff held the same 
position in 1898. During Kostileff's time in office, a Russian chapel and a naval hospital were 
added to the consular complex at Minamiyamate. Kostileff published a history of Japan 
during this period, while de Wollant later wrote a book entitled The Land of the Rising Sun.

Prince Alexander A. Gagarin (Aleksandr A. Gagarin) served as Russian Consul in Nagasaki 
from 1901 to the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War in February 1904. During Gagarin's 
tenure in Nagasaki, he replaced many of the old consular buildings and expanded the 
complex grounds. Also built by Garagin in this period was the "Navy House," a large, two-
storied building constructed on the slope of Minamiyamate with front windows that looked 
out over Nagasaki Harbor and the foreign settlement. It was opened by Garagin to provide 
an alternative to the many Russian inns of ill repute along Oura Creek and the back streets 
of the foreign settlement. Garagin, his consular staff, the hospital nursing staff, thirty 
seamen who were patients at the Russian hospital and a number of Russian residents of 
Nagasaki left town on February 15, 1904. During the Russo-Japanese War, the French 
Consul looked after Russian interests in town. 

A Russian consulate was re-established in Nagasaki in 1906. Zinovii M. Polianovsky 
(Polianovskii), who previously had served as Vice-Consul in Hakodate and Seoul, was 
Russian Consul from March 1906 to July 1909. He was followed by Nikolai A. Rospopoff 
(Rospopov), a veteran of Russian diplomatic offices in Korea, Japan (Kobe) and China.
[Lensen] Rospopoff was a former student of the great Russian pianist Anton Rubenstein, 
and was himself a very accomplished pianist. Rospopoff was described during his time in 
Nagasaki as a fierce-looking black-bearded man from Yalta who had brought out a "niece" 
with him when he came to Nagasaki in July 1909. Just prior to leaving his position in 
February 1912, he married his "niece" in a ceremony in Nagasaki. The two then went to 
Singapore, where Rospopoff was assigned as the new Consul General for the Straits 
Settlements. Life apparently did not work out well for the newlyweds, as, according to 
Herbert Poole, a friend of Rospopoff from their days in Nagasaki, his wife (who was about 
forty years younger than him) later ran away with a dashing young naval officer.

Exchanging positions with Rospopoff was Artemi/Artemy de Wywodzef (Artemii M. 
Vyvodtsev), who had been the Russian Consul in Singapore from 1890 to 1912. De 
Wywodzeff served as Russian Consul in Nagasaki from February 1912 to June 1915, 
although during his absence in 1914, Vitalii A. Skorodumov stepped in as Acting Consul. 
During a portion of this absence, de Wywodzeff had been detained in Germany as World War 
One broke out. De Wywodzeff was appointed to be Consul General in San Francisco in 
June 1915. He remained in that position until December 1917, when he resigned after 
refusing to accept instructions from the new Bolshevik government in Russia. De Wywdozeff 
remained in San Francisco until his death there in January 1946 at the age of ninety-two.

Replacing de Wywodzeff as Russian Consul in Nagasaki was Aleksander S. Maximoff 
(Aleksandr S. Maksimov). Maximoff served as Consul from June 1915 to February 1925. 
Unlike de Wywodzeff, Maximoff stayed on in his position years after the revolution in 1917. 
As a matter of fact, he remained the Russian Consul in Nagasaki until the consulate was 
closed on February 15, 1925. In March of that year, Maximoff left for Europe, but he would 
later return to Nagasaki.

When Maximoff was replaced by Zakhar L. Ter-Assaturoff (Ter-Asaturov) in September 
1925, [Nagasaki Press, September 18, 1925] this marked the first time that the Consul in 
Nagasaki was listed as the Soviet rather than the Russian Consul. The consulate was moved 
from No. 5A Minamiyamate to No. 4 Oura. While Ter-Assaturoff was away in 1928, 
Maximoff again supervised affairs from No. 5A Minamiyamate, but Ter-Assaturoff was back 
at No. 4 Oura by 1929. The position rotated back to Maximoff and the Minamiyamate site in 
1931, and remained there until its permanent closure the following year.