Higashiyamate Biographies


BELLE ALLEN

Belle J. Allen was born in Bellefonte, Ohio on November 11, 1862. A member of the
Cincinnati Branch of the Methodist Episcopal Church, she arrived in Japan in September
1888. The following month Allen came to work at Kwassui Jo Gakko but soon transferred to
Fukuoka. She returned to Kwassui in 1890 but transferred again in 1892 - this time to
Yokohama. Allen was seriously injured in a boating accident at Tokyo in 1898 that claimed
the life of fellow Methodist missionary and college roommate Maude Simons. After
recovering, Allen became a medical missionary and went to India. She died in India on
January 2, 1946.

C. EDWARD AMUAT

One of the Western physicians who served at the Nagasaki Government Hospital was 
Edward Amuat. A native of Switzerland, Dr. Amuat was a naturalized U.S. citizen who 
arrived in Nagasaki in August 1889. In addition to his duties as Director of the Government 
Hospital, Amuat also had his own private practice, which he operated out of his home.  
Initially, he resided at No. 11 Higashiyamate, but when this burned in March 1891, he moved 
to No. 9 Oura.

In late May 1892, Dr. Amuat became ill and planned a trip to the country to recuperate.  
Before he got far, however, his condition worsened and he was forced to return home.  
Amuat lapsed into unconsciousness on May 31, 1892 and never recovered. Ironically, he 
had been nominated to serve as American Vice-Consul and the notice of his appointment 
arrived three days after his death. Dr. Amuat was buried in Sakamoto International 
Cemetery. 

ADELLA ASHBAUGH

Adella M. Ashbaugh came out to head the Music Department at Kwassui Jo Gakko in 
October 1908. Born in Lancaster, Ohio on September 19, 1873, she received her A.B. from 
Baldwin University in 1898, and immediately set sail for Nagasaki as a member of the 
Cincinnati Branch of the Women's Foreign Missionary Society. Ashbaugh performed six 
terms of service in Nagasaki (on her first furlough home in 1914, she graduated from Ohio 
Wesleyan Conservatory) between 1908 and December 10, 1940, when she was evacuated to 
the United States. In 1929, while teaching at Kwassui, Ashbaugh published Kwassui Jo 
Gakko, 1879-1929, a history of the school's first fifty years. She retired on January 1, 1943 
and passed away in Columbus, Ohio on February 9, 1946 at the age of seventy-two.

LOUISE BANGS

Louise Bangs was born in Lansing, Michigan on March 8, 1881. From December 1911 to 
1920 she taught at Kwassui Jo Gakko. In 1925, she married George Ernest Trueman, a 
native of Canada and the former secretary of the Nagasaki YMCA who had been her 
neighbor at Higashiyamate during her years at Kwassui. Trueman's first wife Julia had 
passed away in Nagoya in 1921. Bangs died in Islington, Ontario on December 24, 1955 at 
the age of seventy-four.

ANNA BING

Anna L.V. Bing was born in McArthur, Ohio on August 28, 1864. She arrived in Japan as a 
missionary of the Methodist Episcopal Church on September 28, 1888. She sailed 
immediately to Nagasaki, arriving on October 6. Bing came to town to take charge of the 
music department at Kwassui Jo Gakko. She remained in Nagasaki until 1900 except for a 
leave to the United States from 1893 to 1896. Anna Bing died in Cincinnati, Ohio on 
December 8, 1923 at the age of fifty-nine.

HENDERSON BURNSIDE

Henderson Burnside was a missionary with the Church Missionary Society. He and his wife 
arrived in Nagasaki on April 23, 1870. Burnside initially conducted a semi-public Bible class 
on Sunday afternoons, but in 1873 when the Japanese government removed its restrictions 
on the propagation of Christianity, he converted his Bible Class into a regular public service 
and added a service on Wednesday evenings as well.

About forty people attended Burnside's foreign service every Sunday and he also held a 
prayer meeting for foreigners Sunday evening. Usually only four to six people attended, but 
when a man-of-war was in port the number could increase to twenty to twenty-five. In 
addition to these efforts, Burnside became involved in an early attempt to establish a 
Seamen's Home in Nagasaki to meet the needs of Christian sailors.

Early in 1874, Burnside opened a free school in his home at Higashiyamate, where he and his 
wife taught eighteen male students. He then turned his attention to purchasing land within 
the foreign settlement as close to the native town as possible to erect a mission school or 
church. The obvious choice was Dejima, the site of the former Dutch headquarters which 
bordered the native town.

Burnside, constantly complaining of ill health, begged to be replaced so that he could go 
back to England to recover. While his health deteriorated, he continued to make plans to 
build a church on Dejima. He hoped that a representative from the Female Education 
Society would arrive soon and that she could keep the school going until his replacement 
got there.

Unfortunately for Burnside, neither the female representative nor his replacement arrived 
before his illness forced him to leave. The Burnsides departed on April 16, 1875 and their 
replacements did not arrive until the end of June. As ill as Burnside seemed upon his 
departure, he managed to live another twenty-eight years before passing away at the age 
of fifty-nine on February 9, 1903.  

CHARLES BISHOP

Charles Bishop arrived in Nagasaki in October 1885, where he served as the third principal 
of Chinzei. Born in Troopsburg [Troopsville?], New York on April 16, 1850, Bishop was 
educated at Northwestern University and graduated from Garrett Biblical Institute in 1879.  
In September of the same year, he arrived in Japan as a missionary with the Methodist 
Church. In 1880, he married Olive Whiting, a fellow Methodist missionary who had been in 
the country since 1876. Four children were born to the Bishops in Nagasaki -- Karl (1881), 
Mildred (1883), Faith (1886) and Leon (1889) -- before Charles was transferred to 
Kyobunkan in Tokyo in 1891. Olive Bishop passed away in Tokyo in 1914 at the age of sixty-
seven. Two years later Charles married Jennie Vail, the sister of Methodist missionary 
Milton Vail. Charles Bishop officially retired in 1926, although he continued to teach at 
Aoyama Gakuin until ordered to evacuate in July 1940. He died in Los Angeles, California 
on November 8, 1941 at the age of ninety-one.

EUGENE AND EMILIE BOOTH

Eugene S. Booth was born in Trumbull, Connecticut on August 16, 1850. He received his B.
A. from Rutgers College in 1876 and then graduated from the New Brunswick Theological 
Seminary in 1879. On December 8 of the same year, Booth and his wife Emilie (Stelle) 
arrived in Nagasaki to work as missionaries with the Reformed Church in America. Booth 
replaced Henry Stout, who had returned to the United States on leave. The Booth family 
remained in Nagasaki until November 1881 when they transferred to Yokohama. Eugene 
Booth was appointed the second principal of Ferris Seminary in Yokohama that same year.  
Emilie worked as a missionary to Japan until her death in Harper's Ferry, Virginia on July 11, 
1917 at the age of sixty-two. Eugene Booth worked as a missionary in Japan until 1922.  
He died in New York City on February 9, 1931 at the age of eighty.

ANDRE BOUCLY

 Andre M. Boucly, a native of France, was in Nagasaki by the 1920s working as a merchant.  
In 1928, his Japanese wife Maki died and he erected a tombstone for her at Choshoji 
Temple. At the same time, a tombstone was built next to it for the Mukai family, whose 
daughter was married to another Frenchman, F. Charbonnel. When Charbonnel died in 1934 
at the age of sixty-two, he was cremated and buried in the Mukai plot. Boucly later married 
a Japanese woman named Toku, and when she died in 1950 her ashes were included along 
with his first wife's at Choshoji. Boucly briefly ran French government affairs out of his 
house at No. 13A Higashiyamate from July 1939 until the beginning of hostilities in World 
War Two. On September 17, 1956, Andre Boucly passed away and his ashes were placed 
alongside those of his two wives. The building at Higashiyamate became the property of 
relatives of his second wife and is presently used as a coffee shop.

MARY BROKAW

Mary E. Brokaw was born in Somerset County, New Jersey on April 8, 1861. She initially 
was a teacher in Louisburg, Kentucky. On May 19, 1884 she came to Nagasaki with Clara B. 
Richards to serve as a missionary with the Reformed Church in America. By the end of the 
year, Brokaw and Richards had taken a few girls into their home and created the nucleus of 
a school. When construction was completed on the RCA girls called Sturges Seminary 
[Umegasaki Jo Gakko} in the summer of 1887, Brokaw was named principal. She remained 
in Nagasaki until 1890, when she asked to be transferred to Ferris Seminary in Yokohama.  
Brokaw stayed at Ferris until 1899 before departing for the United States. 

GLEN BRUNER

Glen W. Bruner was born in Red Cloud, Nebraska on August 22, 1897. On October 15, 1920, 
Bruner came to Nagasaki as a Methodist missionary to teach at Chinzei Gakuin. He 
remained there until 1931 when, due to cutbacks in funding from the Methodist board in the 
United States, he resigned and entered the U.S. Foreign Service. While serving as a 
Methodist missionary, Bruner acted as the treasurer of the Seamen's Home and president 
of the American Association of Nagasaki. He worked for the U.S. Foreign Service from 1931 
to 1955. His first assignment was as Vice-Consul in Nagasaki, where he served from 
October 30, 1931 to July 17, 1937. From 1961 to June 30, 1966 he worked at the ABCC in 
Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Glen Bruner died of heart failure in Boulder, Colorado on March 
26, 1987 at the age of eighty-nine.


MARY CODY

 Mary A. Cody was born in Lincoln, Nebraska on October 28, 1871 and raised in Cleveland, 
Ohio. She arrived at Kwassui Jo Gakko in 1905, after having spent five years in Manila and 
Singapore as a missionary with the Women's Foreign Missionary Society. Upon her arrival 
in Nagasaki, Cody organized the Kindergarten Normal Department at the school. The 
department remained in operation until 1922. She also established a kindergarten in the Y.M.
C.A. and one for the children of Japanese women who coaled the boats in Nagasaki Harbor.  
She remained in Nagasaki until April 1910, when she returned to her home in Cleveland.


IRVIN CORRELL

Irvin Correll was born in Easton, Pennsylvania in 1851. He graduated from Millersville State 
Normal School in 1871 and then joined the Philadelphia Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church in 1873. That same year Correll was assigned to China, but went no 
further than Japan, due to his wife Jennie's illness. He was instead assigned to Yokohama.  
After a furlough to the U.S. in 1889, he came in 1891 to Nagasaki. Correll was appointed 
presiding Elder of the Nagasaki District later that year and held this position until 1897. He 
also served as the fifth principal at Chinzei from 1892 to 1893. 

The Corrells while in Nagasaki lived at No. 12 Higashiyamate, which at the time served as 
Methodist missionary housing. It was from there that Jennie Correll supposedly witnessed 
an affair between an American sailor and a Japanese prostitute that she passed on to her 
brother John Luther Long, a Philadelphia writer. In 1898, Luther published his fictionalized 
version of the affair under the title AMadame Butterfly@ in Century Magazine. Two years 
later, the American playwright David Belasco created a play of the same name that was 
witnessed by Giacomo Puccini in London. Puccini fell in love with the play and set about 
turning it into an opera, which debuted in Milan in 1904. The opera Madama Butterfly 
eventually became a huge success and forever linked the tragic love story to Nagasaki.

Although the Corrells left Nagasaki in 1897, they were in the town visiting their son (who 
was U.S. Vice-Consul of Nagasaki at the time) in June 1922, when the great Japanese 
soprano Miura Tamaki, who made a living portraying Cho-Cho San, happened to pass 
through and perform a few songs from the famous opera. Jennie Correll, her son, Miura, 
and the local Nagasaki historian, Muto Chozo, paid a visit to No. 14 Minamiyamate, which 
had served as the U.S. Consulate while the Corrells lived in Nagasaki, and was an important 
setting for the opera's story line.

Irvin Correll died at sea in June 1926 at the age of seventy-five while returning from the 
United States to Japan. Jennie Correll passed away seven years later in November 1933.

SARA COUCH
 
Sara M. Couch was born in the upstate New York town of Schoharie on January 10, 1867.  
After graduating from Albany State Normal School in 1888, she worked as an elementary 
school teacher in the public school system at Mechanicville, New York until 1891. She then 
spent a year at the Moody Bible Institute in Chicago preparing for missionary service. The 
Reformed Church dispatched her to Nagasaki in 1892 with the understanding that she would 
conduct evangelical work in the area. These plans, however, were soon altered.

The twenty-five-year old Couch arrived in Nagasaki on October 22, 1892 to discover that 
the head teacher at Sturges Seminary (Umegasaki Jo Gakko), the Reformed Church girls' 
school that had opened five years earlier in Nagasaki, had died suddenly the previous 
month. This necessitated that Couch abandon her evangelical plans and assume charge of 
Sturges. At the time of her arrival, there were fifty-one students at the school, eleven of 
whom were Christians. Two years later under Couch's direction there were fifty-eight girls 
at Sturges, thirty of whom were Christian.

An additional missionary was assigned to Sturges Seminary in 1895, in order that Couch 
could prepare for her evangelistic work. Couch was not long at her work, however, when 
conditions once again necessitated her recall to Sturges to teach. From 1898 until the 
removal of Sturges from Nagasaki in 1914, Couch performed the dual roles of teacher and 
touring evangelist. 

In July 1899, Sara Couch embarked on her initial furlough to the United States where she 
stayed a year. While she was in America, a twelve-year-old student named Tomegawa Jun 
entered Sturges Seminary. Jun was the second daughter of Rev. Tomegawa Ichiro and his 
wife Ume. Ichiro was an early disciple of the Rev. Henry Stout, the long-time head of the 
Reformed Church mission in Nagasaki. Ume was also a Christian, having graduated from 
Ferris Seminary in Yokohama and served as an assistant to Mrs. Stout before her marriage 
to Ichiro. 

Tomegawa Jun was born in Nagasaki on December 13, 1884, but traveled extensively as a 
child due to her father's work at various Christian missions in northern Kyushu. Tragedy 
struck the family early, as Ume passed away when Jun was two and her only sister died a 
year later. Ichiro later remarried and Jun became part of a family of seven brothers and 
sisters, but life remained difficult because of the constant illness of her stepmother.

Tomegawa Jun began school in Kurume and finished her primary education in Saga. She 
was forced to stay home and work for a year after this; finally entering Sturges in 
September 1899. In spite of difficulties at home that precluded Jun from returning to 
school on time after summer vacation each year, she managed to graduate from Sturges in 
the spring of 1903.

From Sturges Tomegawa Jun went to Joshi Gakuin, a Presbyterian girls' school in Tokyo, 
with the financial support of the Reformed Church. In March 1905, she graduated, and the 
following month returned to Nagasaki to teach the Bible, Home Economics and History at 
Sturges Seminary. She also added the duties of dormitory matron in 1907. In spite of her 
original reluctance to take on the added burden, she agreed to do it because of her 
affection for Couch, the Assistant Principal, whom Jun later admitted she "learned to love 
as a mother."

Although offered the opportunity to go to the United States to attend college or Bible 
School, Tomegawa chose to remain in Nagasaki and teach at Sturges. Except for the year 
missed by Couch during her second furlough to America in 1907, the two taught at Sturges 
until the school was transferred to Shimonoseki in 1914 in a cost-cutting measure that 
merged it with a Presbyterian girls' school from Yamaguchi. The Sturges buildings at 
Higashiyamate were sold to Kwassui, a neighboring Methodist mission school for girls.

At the time of the removal of the school to Shimonoseki, Couch and Tomegawa decided not 
to join the larger new school (still referred to as Sturges Seminary in English, but called 
Baiko Jo Gakuin in Japanese), but to remain behind and perform evangelical work to small 
groups of women in Nagasaki. Tomegawa also had an offer to become General Secretary of 
the Tokyo-based Woman's Board of Missions of the Church of Christ in Japan, but declined 
because it would have taken her away from Nagasaki.

Instead, Tomegawa Jun and Sara Couch concentrated their efforts on evangelizing and 
publishing a Japanese-language newspaper for women in the Nagasaki area. The eight-page 
monthly newspaper, entitled Ochibo (Harvest Gleanings), debuted in October 1914 and ran 
until February 1942 when it was forced to shut down because of World War Two. By the 
end of the first year, the newspaper had over 800 subscribers. Although originally intended 
primarily for women, Ochibo also achieved a wide following among men. By 1922 there were 
more than a thousand subscribers throughout Japan as well as abroad in countries 
stretching from India to the United States. 

By this time, the newspaper had achieved a profit, and the proceeds were being contributed 
to a building fund for a new church in Nagasaki. The new structure for Nagasaki Kyokai was 
built on the site of the old Public Hall in Oura and dedicated in October 1925. It included a 
second-floor room over the entrance specially designed for use by the Women's Society of 
the church.

After living together for years in a Western-style building at Higashiyamate, Sara Couch and 
Tomegawa Jun bought a three-story, sixteen-room Japanese house at No. 96 Kami 
Nishiyama in 1928. Here they continued to publish Ochibo and headquarter their evangelical 
work throughout the 1930s. 

In 1941, as relations between Japan and the United States deteriorated, the situation for 
Sara Couch became anxious. By the summer of that year, the U.S. Consul and all 
American missionaries, except Couch, had evacuated Nagasaki. According to a Board of 
Foreign Missions report, Couch chose to stay with her friends in Nagasaki because she felt 
more at home there than in the United States.  

On the morning of December 8, 1941, in the aftermath of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Sara 
Couch was arrested at her Nishiyama home by a local policeman and taken to Maria 
Gakuen, a Catholic girls' school across town. Tomegawa Jun, in the company of two friends, 
visited Couch the next morning at the school. In the beginning, Jun was allowed to visit 
daily to bring food and supplies, but eventually was restricted to one visit a week. 

Couch was detained at Maria Gakuen for a year before being transferred to Tokyo in 
December 1942. Prior to the departure from Nagasaki, Japanese authorities allowed her to 
return to her home for a few days to prepare for the trip. In addition, Tomegawa was 
permitted to accompany Couch to her new detention center at a French girls' school in 
Tokyo. Over the course of the war, Tomegawa managed to travel to Tokyo two or three 
additional times to visit her friend. 

Sara Couch, despite her advanced years (she was almost seventy-six at the time of her 
transfer to Tokyo), not only survived internment but served as an inspiration to others in 
the camp. A member of the Evangelical Mission in Tokyo who was confined with Couch, 
remarked in a September 1945 letter upon their release that "[Couch] has been such a 
blessing to us in our internment camp in Tokyo ever since she came to us from Nagasaki in 
December 1942."

The camp was destroyed by American fire bombings on May 25, 1945, and although Couch 
lost most of her personal belongings, she managed to escape injury. She was then moved 
with the other prisoners to Seibo Hospital and Convent until the end of the war in August. 

Peace came at last, but at a terrible price to the American missionary who four years 
earlier had stayed behind in Japan rather than return to the United States. Her beloved 
Nagasaki had been devastated by an atomic bomb, and she had no idea as to the condition 
of her friend Tomegawa Jun. The ship repatriating the camp internees to San Francisco 
was set to depart, but Couch refused to sail without information concerning Tomegawa. In 
a September 1, 1945 letter to an old Nagasaki acquaintance, Couch noted that "I may 
return later if [Tomegawa] and all friends there are gone!"

In an effort to examine first hand the condition of Tomegawa Jun and other friends in 
Nagasaki, Sara Couch arranged for transportation to the city - arriving by train on 
September 13. What she saw coming into town horrified her, as she passed through Urakami 
and the heart of the atomic destruction. By the time the train pulled into the center of 
Nagasaki, however, she was able to breathe a small sigh of relief; she could see that the 
mountain between her home and Urakami had protected her neighborhood from the most 
severe damage. In an ironic twist of fate, she was escorted from the train station to her 
home by the same policeman who four years earlier had taken her away to the detention 
center - his behavior on this occasion reflecting much more humility than the first time 
they had met. 

Sara Couch's unannounced arrival at her Nishiyama residence ended considerable 
trepidation on the part of the two long-time evangelists; Couch wondering if Tomegawa had 
survived the atomic bombing, and Tomegawa speculating as to whether the seventy-eight-
year old Couch had been able to endure four years of internment and the Tokyo air raids.  
Uncertainty and fear were soon replaced by reassurance and joy, as Sara Couch was finally 
home again with friends in Nagasaki. 

The years of internment had taken their toll, however, and Sara Couch's health soon broke 
down. After a short illness, she died of pneumonia at her home on January 27, 1946 at the 
age of seventy-nine. Her funeral service was conducted in an upstairs room of her home 
by Tomegawa Jun. Among those in attendance was a young minister named Aoyama Takeo, 
who was so impressed by Couch's sacrifice for the youth of Japan that he too decided to 
dedicate his life to the education of Japanese youth. Aoyama later became the founder 
and president of The Nagasaki Junior College of Foreign Languages. 

Sara Couch was buried not in the International Cemetery at Sakamoto where most 
foreigners were laid to rest, but across town in the Nagasaki Kyokai section of the 
Nakagawa Go (Narutaki) Cemetery situated above the Nagasaki Prefectural Junior College 
for Women. The following year Tomegawa Jun erected a tombstone over the grave, 
proclaiming herself a disciple left behind by Miss Couch. Tomegawa continued to live at the 
Nishiyama home and work for Christian causes in Nagasaki until her death on February 15, 
1974 at the age of eighty-nine. She was buried alongside Sara Couch, and her name was 
added to the tombstone that she had erected twenty-seven years earlier for her teacher 
and friend.

SARAH CURRY

Sarah Olive Curry was born in California, Pennsylvania on February 15, 1898. She arrived 
in Japan on December 1, 1925 as a missionary with the Methodist Episcopal Church. From 
1930 to September 29, 1941, Curry taught music at Kwassui Jo Gakko. She was the last 
missionary to leave Nagasaki before World War II and the first to return. On January 8, 
1947, she went back to Kwassui and remained there until April 1967. During this period, 
Curry also helped establish the Yuai Kan Social Center. Sarah Curry died in Pasadena, 
California on December 2, 1975 at the age of seventy-seven.

CHARLES DAVISON

Charles Stewart Davison was born in Nagasaki on February 14, 1877, the eldest son of the 
Methodist missionaries John and Elizabeth Davison. Charles lived in Japan until age 
fourteen and then went to the United States to continue his education. He received his B.
A. from Dickinson College in 1898 and his B.D. from Drew University in 1901. After 
graduation, he served as pastor of the South Market Street Church in Newark, New Jersey 
from 1901-1903. On September 26, 1903, Charles Davison returned to Japan, where he 
served as Presiding Elder in Sendai. Davison later taught in the College and Theological 
Departments of Aoyama Gakuin in Tokyo. He came back to Nagasaki in 1917 to become 
Dean of Chinzei Gakuin, but remained there only a year before returning home on leave.  
While on leave and teaching Greek at Drew University, Davison became ill from the flu. 
Unfortunately, the illness eventually developed into tuberculosis. Davison spent the final 
year of his life battling the disease. He died in Bloomingdale, New York on May 10, 1920 at 
the age of forty-three and was buried at the old family home in Andover, New Jersey. He 
was survived by his wife Florence May Bower (whom he had married while home on leave on 
June 1, 1905) and their three children: Elizabeth [Gertrude], Dorothy and Robert.

JOHN AND ELIZABETH DAVISON

In November 1872, at the annual meeting of the General Missionary Committee of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in New York City, the church decided to send a mission to 
Japan. Among the four ordained ministers chosen to be the first missionaries sent was 
John C. Davison, who was assigned to Nagasaki. On May 20, 1873, Davison married 
Elizabeth Stout and they arrived in Nagasaki August 30 to begin their work. 

John Davison was born in Harmony, New Jersey on November 19, 1843. At age fourteen, 
he became a member of the Newark Conference. As a young adult, he taught for several 
years, and also worked in law and medicine. Davison later served a short term in the army 
before enlisting in the navy for the duration of the Civil War. He received his education 
from Andover Academy and Drew Theological Seminary.

Even though the edicts against Christianity were no longer being enforced when the 
Davisons arrived in Nagasaki, they still found their first year one of preparatory work and 
the teaching of English. The following year, Davison began work on a church. The building, 
which was located at No. 22 Dejima, was completed in June 1876, making it the second 
oldest Protestant church for Japanese in Nagasaki. Davison was making gradual progress in 
baptisms and church attendance was up, when in late 1876 and early 1877 the Satsuma 
Rebellion interfered with his missionary activities. At the same time Nagasaki was also 
struck by a cholera epidemic. Davison bemoaned the fact that the lack of a Methodist 
mission school in Nagasaki prevented him from taking advantage of the closing of the 
government school.

Davison realized the importance of education in spreading the word of Christianity and 
begged the Mission Board for personnel to staff such schools. In the meantime, while 
awaiting assistance, he spent much of his time writing and translating hymns and teaching 
private English classes.  

John Davison was instrumental in bringing the personnel to Nagasaki who would open 
Methodist mission schools for both girls and boys. In response to his May 1879 request, 
Elizabeth Russell and Jennie Gheer opened Kwassui Jo Gakko in November, and the 
following year Davison met C.S. Long upon his arrival in Nagasaki and even purchased the 
land for Chinzei's first building.

Davison even taught at Chinzei in its opening years, before returning home on leave to the 
United States with his wife in 1882. During their initial nine-year stay in Nagasaki, Elizabeth 
Davison gave birth to three children: Charles, who became a missionary and teacher at 
Chinzei; Frances, who died in the U.S. in 1914; and Mabel, who was a music teacher at 
Kwassui before her marriage to a missionary in China in 1907. A fourth child, Judiah (Jay), 
was born while the Davisons were on leave in the U.S. in 1883. Jay spent thirty years as a 
businessman in China.

The Davisons returned to Japan in late 1883, and until July 1885, John Davison served as 
Presiding Elder of the Methodist Church for the Yokohama District. From July 1885 to May 
1891, he held the same position in the Nagasaki District. During this time, Davison once 
again taught at Chinzei. After returning from leave to the U.S. in September 1892, Davison 
became Presiding Elder of the Tokyo District until July 1897. In 1897, he was transferred 
back to the Nagasaki District (which became part of the South Japan Mission in 1898). He 
taught at Chinzei again until 1902, when he was transferred to a girls' school in Kumamoto.

In April 1915, while living in Kumamoto, Elizabeth Davison died in her sleep at the age of sixty
-four on the return voyage from having visited her daughter in China. Upon hearing the 
news, her husband came to Nagasaki the following day and conducted funeral services at 
both Kwassui and the Methodist Church at Ginya-machi. Elizabeth Davison was then buried 
at Sakamoto International Cemetery.

John Davison continued to work and teach in Kumamoto until 1922, when he went to live 
with his widowed daughter, Mabel, in Berkeley, California. There, on October 20, 1928, John 
Davison passed away at the age of eighty-four. In accordance with the instructions of his 
will, his body was taken to Nagasaki and laid to rest beside his wife at Sakamoto.


MABEL DAVISON

Mabel Winter Davison was born in Nagasaki on April 18, 1878, the third child of the 
Methodist missionaries John and Elizabeth Davison. In the 1890s, Mabel spent three years 
studying in California and two in Tokyo, before going to the Collegiate Institute in 
Hackettstown, New Jersey. From September 26, 1903 to January 29, 1907, she was in 
charge of the Music Department at Kwassui in Nagasaki. Mabel left Kwassui to marry 
Richard Smart, a missionary to China. She went with her husband to Soochow where she 
had three children. After her husband's sudden death from cholera in 1921, she and her 
children returned to Berkeley, California to live. Mabel, who herself suffered from malaria, 
was joined in Berkeley the following year by her aged father John C. Davison.

NATHAN DEMAREST

Nathan H. Demarest was born in New York, New York on July 3, 1861. He received his B.A. 
from Rutgers College in 1880 before graduating from New Brunswick Theological Seminary in 
1883. He came to Nagasaki on December 19, 1883 as a missionary with the Reformed 
Church in America. Demarest remained in Nagasaki until April 22, 1888 before taking a 
leave to the United States. He returned briefly to Nagasaki on November 8, 1889, but 
remained only for a few months, before once again going back to the U.S. because of his wife
's poor health. Annie Strong Demarest died soon thereafter and Nathan resigned from 
missionary work. From 1890 to 1912, Demarest served as a pastor in Roxbury, New York.  
He returned briefly to Japan in 1912, but stayed only a year. Nathan Demarest died in Mt. 
Vernon, New York on February 17, 1917 at the age of fifty-five.

PETER DOEL

Peter Doel was born in Wiltshire, England on February 14, 1841. He joined the London 
Police Force at the age of twenty and spent about five years there before coming to Japan 
to work as a bodyguard for Sir Harry Parkes. He remained at the British Embassy for four 
years. For the next three years he was attached to the Yokohama and Kobe Railway 
Police. Just prior to coming to Nagasaki, he worked for five years in Osaka.

Doel was originally assigned to the Shinchi Police Station when he came to Nagasaki in 1879, 
but was later transferred to the Umegasaki Station. For his first year's salary, Doel 
received $70 dollars a month. The following year, the salary was raised to $80 dollars a 
month plus a $5 cost of living allowance; it remained this amount for the remainder of his 
tenure in Nagasaki. Early on, he resided at No. 11 Oura and later lived at No. 17 
Higashiyamate.

Peter Doel served the Nagasaki community admirably for over fifteen years until illness 
caught up with him. On March 20, 1995, he received notice that his contract would not be 
renewed when it expired at the end of the month. Critically ill by this time, however, losing 
his job was the least of his worries. Doel died two days after his last official day of work at 
the Umegasaki Station at the age of fifty-four. The following day, he was buried at 
Sakamoto International Cemetery.

JAMES W. DONALD

James W. Donald was born in Britain in 1839. He was a sail-maker working for Browne & 
Co. when he died at his residence at No. 12A Higashiyamate on December 19, 1895 at the 
age of fifty-six. He was survived by his Japanese wife Fuku and their four children. James 
and Fuku were married at the British consulate in Yokohama on July 7, 1891. She was a 
British subject, but the children could not be, because they were all born in Japan before 
the marriage. On May 5, 1902, Fuku, fifty-one years old from Kanagawa, petitioned to be 
allowed to return to being a Japanese citizen. All of her children -- James Webster (24), 
Agnes Lily (22), Annie Katherine (18), and William David (14) -- were born in Yokohama.  

MARY ELLIOT

Mary J. [Minnie] Elliot was a minister's daughter from Greensburg, Ohio. She came to 
Nagasaki on December 12, 1885 to teach music at Kwassui Jo Gakko. Elliot took charge of 
the school on May 6, 1889 when Elizabeth Russell went home on leave. Mary Elliot taught 
at Kwassui until September 21, 1890 when she left due to ill health. She married a 
Methodist minister named Armstrong in 1902. 

GEORGE ENSOR

Although Episcopalians from the United States had been in Nagasaki since 1859 (John 
Liggins and C.M. Williams came in the summer of that year), the first British representative 
was Rev. George Ensor of the Church Missionary Society who arrived with his wife on 
January 23, 1869. Ensor was a graduate of Queens College, Cambridge in 1867. He was 
ordained a deacon the same year and a priest the next.

In the summer of 1869, Ensor and his wife sailed from Liverpool to Shanghai. The couple 
remained in China for three months before moving on to Nagasaki. There, they initially 
stayed in the house on the hill formerly occupied by Williams. By the following year, 
however, they were renting lots Nos. 1 & 2 at Higashiyamate. Ensor spent most of his time 
conducting services for the foreign community and visiting sailors, teaching English at the 
Japanese government school, and translating the New Testament. In January 1870, the 
Japanese government began to arrest and exile the Hidden Christians and Ensor requested 
that the British Consul intervene to end their persecution. Before the issue was resolved, 
however, Ensor returned to England because of ill health on May 15, 1872.  

In 1908, Ensor tried once again to come to Japan; the CMS rejected his attempt, so he 
came out independently and worked in Tokyo briefly in 1909 -- forty years after his first 
visit to the country. Ensor fell ill in the summer of 1910 and tried to return to England but 
died en route at Gibraltar on August 13 on board the Persia. George Ensor, the first CMS 
missionary to Japan and the founder of its mission in Nagasaki, was buried in Gibraltar.

EMMA EVERDING

Emma J. Everding was born in Brooklyn, New York on August 8, 1858. Her arrival in Nagasaki 
on December 19, 1883 marked the first time that a female missionary had been dispatched 
to Kwassui since the coming of the school's founders, Elizabeth Russell and Jennie Gheer, in 
1879. Everding received her B.A. from Syracuse University in 1882. She was a member of 
the Baltimore Branch of the Women's Foreign Missionary Society. At Kwassui, Everding 
organized the Science Department in 1885. She remained at Kwassui until May 6, 1889, 
when her health broke down and she had to be accompanied home by Miss Russell. Emma 
Everding arrived in Syracuse in June and passed away there on January 13, 1892 at the 
age of thirty-three. 

ELIZABETH AND MARY FARRINGTON

Elizabeth F. and Mary J. Farrington were natives of Fishkill, New York. They were sent to 
Nagasaki by the Reformed Church to serve as teachers in Elizabeth Stout's girls' school 
that she operated out of her home at Higashiyamate. The Farrington sisters sailed from 
San Francisco on July 1, 1878 and arrived in Nagasaki on August 25. But the two remained 
in Nagasaki only for a brief time. In January 1879, they went to go to Yokohama in an 
attempt to treat the poor health of the eldest sister. She never fully recovered, however, 
and they were forced to return to the U.S. because of her deteriorating condition. Although 
Elizabeth and Mary Farrington remained in Nagasaki for only a few months, they still hold 
the distinction of being the first single females sent by the Reformed Church to Nagasaki.

JOSE A. DE FIGUREIDO

 Jose a de Figureido, a Portuguese merchant, was in Nagasaki by 1870. At that time, he 
rented No. 28A Oura. He worked first as a clerk for Alt & Co. and later in the same 
capacity for Holme, Ringer & Co. On August 13, 1885, while residing at No. 5 Higashiyamate, 
Figureido married Uchida Taka (22) of Juzenji-machi. In the time span of one month in 
1887, the couple lost a daughter, Maria Thereza, and a son, Jose, to illness. The children 
were buried next to one another in Oura International Cemetery.

ANNA FRENCH

Anna S. French was born in West Salisbury, Massachusetts on March 18, 1863. As a New 
England Branch member of the Women's Foreign Missionary Society, she went to work in 
Yokohama in October 1889. French came to Nagasaki to teach at Kwassui in 1891 and 
stayed until 1895. She left the Methodist mission to marry a Presbyterian missionary 
named Freyer. Anna went to Beirut as a worker for the Presbyterian Board with her 
husband. She died in 1914. 

EPPERSON AND KATE FULKERSON

Epperson Fulkerson was born in Newcastle, Pennsylvania on October 2, 1859. He first 
became a member of the Arkansas Conference and later the Nebraska Conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. Fulkerson married Kate J. Strong on September 15, 1886.  
Arriving in Japan in March 1887, they came down to Nagasaki on August 31, 1889. While in 
Nagasaki, Epperson Fulkerson served two terms (1894-1901 and 1902-06) as principal at 
Chinzei Gakuin.
 
Kate Fulkerson died of diabetes on October 23, 1903 at the age of thirty-six and was buried 
at Sakamoto International Cemetery. She was survived by her husband and four sons: 
Anson (1887), Walter (1889, Nagasaki), Raymond (1892, Nagasaki) and Earl (1899, Nagasaki).

In 1905, Epperson Fulkerson married Anna Strong (possibly Kate's younger sister). There 
were two daughters produced by this marriage. Fulkerson returned to the U.S. in 1907 for 
health reasons and in 1908 transferred to the Columbia River Conference. He spent a few 
years in Galt, California trying to recover his health. From 1914 until his death on May 29, 
1940 at the age of eighty, Fulkerson resided in Canon City, Colorado.

JENNIE GHEER

Jean [Jennie} M. Gheer was born in Bellwood, Pennsylvania on November 13, 1846. She 
attended the State Normal School in Middlesville, Pennsylvania but did not graduate 
because of illness. Jennie Gheer and Elizabeth Russell arrived in Nagasaki on November 23, 
1879 as the first female missionaries sent to the city by the Methodist Episcopal Church.  
Together they founded the girls' school later known as Kwassui Jo Gakko. Gheer remained 
in Nagasaki until 1884, when she moved to Fukuoka and established a girls' school there.  
The school was originally called Eiwa Jogakko, but it was later renamed Fukuoka Jogakko.  
After years of service to women's education in Japan, Jennie Gheer died in her home town 
of Bellwood, Pennsylvania on June 20, 1910 at the age of sixty-three. 

ELIZA GOODALL

Eliza Goodall, a widow who had served in India for twenty years with her husband before his 
death, came to Nagasaki in December 1875. She had met the Rev. Herbert Maundrell and 
his wife Eliza in England and decided to join the couple in Nagasaki and assist the Church 
Missionary Society mission there. Goodall and Eliza Maundrell handled the English classes 
at the mission. This was not a particularly difficult task in the beginning, since there were 
usually only two to three students at the time. 

In January 1879, the English Church Day School for Japanese children was established at 
No. 11 Dejima. Mrs. Goodall taught there in the morning while a Japanese Christian male 
led classes in the afternoon. In mid-1879, a Girls Training School was opened at No. 3 
Higashiyamate, with Goodall initially teaching two students.

For many years, Eliza Goodall operated the Girls' Training School alone, in spite of her 
advanced years. In April 1892, she wrote Jane Harvey in England to come to Nagasaki and 
assist her with the school. Harvey reached Nagasaki in mid-December 1892. By the time 
of her arrival, Eliza Goodall was already in poor health, and in March 1893 she passed away 
at the age of seventy-five. Mrs. Goodall, a cousin of the poet Tennyson, had spent eighteen 
uninterrupted years assisting the mission at Nagasaki, although she was not officially a CMS 
missionary. She was buried in Nagasaki International Cemetery.

HOWARD HARRIS

Howard Harris was born in Belleville, New Jersey, on July 29, 1848, the son of Elijah and 
Jemima Harris. He graduated from Rutgers College in 1873 and the New Brunswick 
Theological Seminary in1876. From 1876 to 1884, he was a pastor at Hawthorne, New 
York. Harris was married to Elizabeth [Lizzie] B. Disbrow, who was born on April 23, 1854.   
On May 19, 1884, Rev. and Mrs. Harris arrived in Nagasaki to work with the Reformed 
Church station there headed by Henry Stout. Harris and Stout apparently had 
philosophical differences, especially regarding the need for a mission school in Nagasaki.  
Harris did not believe that a mission school was needed in southern Japan and was thus 
transferred to Tokyo in the summer of 1885. He was then offered a position at Meiji Gakuin 
in Tokyo, where he taught until 1900. After returning to the United States, he once again 
served as pastor in Hawthorne, New York from 1904 to1910. Howard and Lizzie Harris then 
moved to California and Howard became an instructor at U.S.C. from1910 to 1914. Howard 
Harris then served briefly (1914-1915) as pastor at a Japanese church in Kahului, Hawaii 
before returning to California. He died in Los Angeles, California on January 13, 1916 at the 
age of sixty-seven. His wife Lizzie died on October 5, 1925 at the age of seventy-one in 
Los Angeles and was buried at her family cemetery in Westminster Cemetery in Cranbury, 
New Jersey.

MERLO HEICHER

Merlo K.H. Heicher was born in Highspire, Pennsylvania on May 31, 1882. He came to 
Nagasaki in September 1906 as a missionary with the Methodist Episcopal Church to teach 
at Chinzei Gakuin, the Methodist boys' school in Nagasaki. He remained in that capacity 
until 1911. Heicher died in Claremont, California on April 21, 1967 at the age of eighty-six.

WILLIS HOEKJE
 
Willis G. Hoekje was born in Cawker City, Kansas on July 3, 1844. He received a B.A. from 
Hope College in Holland, Michigan in 1904 and an M.A. from the same institution in 1907. In 
1907, he graduated from the Western Theological Seminary. That same year, Hoekje went 
to Japan as a missionary with the Reformed Church. He spent three terms in Nagasaki: 
1909, 1913-1915, and April 1927 to 1931. In the latter term, he served as the eighth and 
final principal at Tozan Gakuin. Hoekje remained in Japan until 1941, when he returned to 
the United States prior to the outbreak of WWII. Willis Hoekje died in Wyckoff, New Jersey 
on January 10, 1949 at the age of ninety-four. He was married to Annie M.N. Hall. 

GERTRUDE HOWE

Gertrude Howe was born in Poughkeepsie, New York on September 12, 1846. She 
graduated from Ypsilanti Normal School in 1872 and then became a missionary to China 
with the Methodist Episcopal Church later that year. Howe spent the rest of her life as a 
missionary in China except for a brief stint in Nagasaki from 1884 to 1885 because of 
unrest on the Asian continent. While in Nagasaki, she taught at Kwassui Jo Gakko.  
Gertrude Howe died in Nanchang, China on December 29, 1929 at the age of eighty-three.

HARRIET HOWEY

Harriet M. Howey was born in Florida, Ohio on October 10, 1888. She arrived in Japan as a 
missionary with the Methodist Episcopal Church on November 27, 1916. From 1919 to 1924 
Howey taught at Kwassui Jo Gakko. While in Nagasaki, she helped establish a branch of the 
YWCA in the city. Harriet Howey died in Columbus, Ohio on December 3, 1989 at the age of 
ninety-nine.

A.B. HUTCHINSON

Arthur Blockey Hutchinson was born in England in August 1841. After graduating from the 
Church Missionary Society College in Islington, he became a foreign missionary for the 
CMS. He initially served in Hong Kong before coming to Nagasaki on May 14, 1882. While in 
Nagasaki, he supervised the Sailors' Institute. He left for Fukuoka in June 1889. While 
serving in that city in 1908, he was appointed Archdeacon. Hutchinson returned to 
Nagasaki in 1911. He died on August 31, 1919 at the age of seventy-eight and was buried 
at Karuizawa.

LOUISA IMHOFF

Louisa Imhoff was born in Siskilwa, Illinois on June 18, 1852. She came to Nagasaki on 
March 6, 1889 to take charge of industrial department at Kwassui Jo Gakko. In 1891 Imhoff 
transferred to the North Conference of Japan She died in Blair, Nebraska on September 
11, 1925 at the age of seventy-three. 

HERBERT JOHNSON

Herbert B. Johnson arrived in Nagasaki in December 1888 and stayed until 1897. During 
this time, he served as the sixth Chinzei principal from 1893 to 1894. While serving at 
Chinzei, his three-month old son (Willard B. Johnson) died and was buried in Sakamoto 
International Cemetery in January 1891. Born in Fairfield, New York on April 30, 1858, 
Herbert Johnson graduated from Ilion (New York) Academy in 1878. The following April, he 
married Emma Leach, but she passed away five months later. In 1883, Johnson graduated 
from Drew Theological Seminary in 1883. In May of the same year, he married Clara 
Richardson. The ceremony was performed by his friend David Spencer of Drew. Johnson 
became a member of the Wyoming Conference in 1883, and then served as pastor at 
Luzerne, Pennsylvania (1883-1886) and Plains, Pennsylvania (1886-1887). 

Upon leaving Nagasaki, Johnson was elected Presiding Elector of the South Japan 
Conference 1898. Back in the United States, he was chosen Superintendent of the Pacific 
Japanese Mission in 1904. Johnson received his B.D. from Drew Theological Seminary in 
1894 and his S.T.D. from the University of Pacific in 1907. He passed away from a stroke 
while riding on a train in Indiana in November 1926 at the age of sixty-eight.

LOLA KIDWELL

Lola M. Kidwell was born in Kirkersville, Ohio on September 5, 1867. A graduate of Ohio 
Wesleyan, Kidwell came to Nagasaki as a missionary with the Methodist Episcopal Church on 
October 2, 1894. She spent three terms of service (1904-07, 1910, & 1914-17) at Kwassui 
Jo Gakko teaching Latin, Greek and history. Kidwell returned to the U.S. in 1917 and 
retired the following year. Lola Kidwell, who lived for years at the Methodist Home in 
Alhambra, California, died near San Diego on June 5, 1943 at the age of seventy-five. 

WILLARD DE L. KINGSBURY

Willard de L. Kingsbury was born in San Pablo, California on December 18, 1868. He came 
to Nagasaki as a missionary with the Methodist Episcopal church to teach at Chinzei Gakuin 
from December 26, 1906 to1909. From1909 to 1912 Kingsbury was in Nagoya working for 
the MEC. In 1912 he left the Methodist Church to become an independent missionary and 
English teacher at Yokkaichi in Mie Prefecture. He remained in this capacity until 1920. 

WILLIAM KITCHIN
 
William C. Kitchin was born in St. George, Ontario on September 7, 1855. He became an 
American citizen and served as a missionary with the Methodist Episcopal Church. Kitchin 
and his wife Fanny) came to Nagasaki on September 20, 1882 to assist Carroll Long at 
Chinzei when John Davison (Kitchin's cousin) returned to the U.S. on leave. In 1883, Kitchin 
became the school's second principal. He was appointed to work in Tokyo in September 
1885. William Kitchin died in Scotia, New York on January 8, 1920 at the age of sixty-four.

WALTER KRIDER

Walter W. Krider was born in Portland, Indiana on August 23, 1894. He arrived Japan on 
September 21, 1920 as a missionary with the Methodist Episcopal Church. From 1922 
to1935, Krider taught at Chinzei Gakuin in Nagasaki. In 1927, he served as President of the 
American Association of Nagasaki. Walter Krider died in Denver, Colorado on October 12, 
1967 at the age of seventy-three.

JENNIE KUYPER

Jennie M. Kuyper was born in Pella, Iowa on April 3, 1872. A graduate of the University of 
Chicago, Kuyper taught in the Chicago school system before becoming the principal of the 
Rochester Academy in Rochester, Wisconsin (1901-05). In 1905, she became a missionary 
with the Reformed Church in America and teacher at Ferris Seminary in Yokohama. She 
returned briefly to the United States in 1919 due to an illness and was assigned to 
Kagoshima when she went back to Japan. In 1922, Kuyper became the third principal at 
Ferris Seminary. She died in the Great Kanto Earthquake on September 1, 1923 at the age 
of fifty-one. Her ashes were carried to Nagasaki by fellow missionaries who were attending 
a conference in the city. While she has no surviving tombstone at Sakamoto International 
Cemetery in Nagasaki, she does have one in the international cemetery at Yokohama.

HARRIET LANSING

Harriet M. Lansing was born in Lisha's Kill, New York on September 26, 1860. She attended 
Moody Bible Institute in Chicago before coming to Nagasaki in 1893 as a missionary with the 
Reformed Church in America. Lansing taught at Sturges Seminary [Umegasaki Jo Gakko] 
until moving to Kagoshima in 1898. She later did evangelical work in Fukuoka. From 1924 to 
1928, Lansing worked at Seijo Gakuin in Tokyo; She spent her last years with her sister in 
Richmond Hills, New York. Harriet Lansing died on January 22, 1933 at the age of seventy-
two.

CARRIE LANTERMAN

Carrie B. Lanterman was born in Oxford, New Jersey on March 12, 1862. A graduate of 
New Jersey State Normal School, Lanterman came to Nagasaki in August 1890 to teach 
English and calisthenics at Sturges Seminary [Umegasaki Jo Gakko]. In April 1892, she was 
placed in charge of the school, but, after a short illness, died at her residence at 
Higashiyamate on September 10 at the age of thirty. Her grave at Sakamoto International 
Cemetery became the first missionary grave of the Reformed Church's Women's Board of 
Missions in Japan.

JOHN LIGGINS
 
The first of the American Mission Boards to respond to a 1858 appeal for Protestant 
missionaries in Japan was that of the American Episcopal Church, which had the advantage 
of a station and missionaries already in China. Chosen to go to Nagasaki were two 
missionaries in China at the time: John Liggins and Channing Moore Williams. 

Liggins and Williams were both 1855 graduates of the Virginia Theological Seminary who had 
gone to Shanghai in July 1856. Liggins, who was ill, was sent ahead to take advantage of 
Nagasaki's invigorating climate. He arrived on May 2, 1859 -- almost two months before the 
official opening of the foreign settlement. Liggins and later Williams were housed at Kotokuin 
within Shofukuji Temple because the settlement was not yet ready for residence. 

Liggins immediately began to teach English to Japanese interpreters, but the new Nagasaki 
bugyo proclaimed that he would not allow the teaching of Christianity. The religious duties 
of Liggins and Williams were thus limited to serving as ministers for the American and British 
residents of the foreign settlement and to leading services for visiting sailors. 

John Liggins was forced to leave Nagasaki for the U.S. on February 24, 1860 due to ill 
health. He never again set foot in Japan.

CARROLL LONG

In April 1880, Carroll S. Long arrived in Nagasaki with his wife Flora as missionaries with the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. His primary aim in coming to Nagasaki was to build a 
Methodist school for boys. He brought with him a mere $500, however, so he and Flora 
began to teach English classes to raise more money for a school building. The classes were 
the foundation of what was to become Cobleigh Seminary [Chinzei Gakkan] in October of 
the following year. The school was built on the hill at No. 6 Higashiyamate near Kwassui.

Carroll Long was born near Athens, Tennessee on January 3, 1850. He graduated from 
East Tennessee Wesleyan in 1878 and the following year married Flora Smith in Canton, 
New York. The Longs sailed for Japan on February 28, 1880 and arrived in April. While in 
Nagasaki, three children were born to Carroll and Flora: Mary (1880), Flora (1881) and 
Pauline (1883). A fourth child, "Michi" Geraldine, was born in Yokohama in 1887.

Long served as principal of the school for a year, during a period of growth induced by a 
religious revival in Japan. In October 1882, he was joined by a second Methodist missionary, 
W.C. Kitchin, who was appointed head of the school. Long went home in April 1885, never to 
return to Nagasaki, but the school he founded continued to flourish. Carroll Long died in 
Asheville, North Carolina on September 4, 1890 at the age of forty.

JOHN MAJOR

John Benjamin Major was born in Strasbourg, France in 1835. By 1858, he was in Shanghai 
with his brother Robert, who was a silk inspector, and by June of the following year, he had 
made his way to Nagasaki at the young age of twenty-four. He soon established the trading 
firm of Major & Co., which had its headquarters at No. 5 Oura. He also rented No. 10 
Higashiyamate for the purpose of constructing a private residence, which, unfortunately, he 
never got around to building.  

On April 20, 1861, Major was elected as one of three original members (the others being 
William J. Alt and Franklin Field) to the Municipal Council, the ruling body of the foreign 
settlement in its early years. Situated between the establishments of Glover and Alt on the 
Bund, Major and Co. was poised to become one of the leading trading firms in Nagasaki 
when John Major suddenly passed away on February 19, 1862. He is buried in Oura 
International Cemetery. 

PAULINE MAY

Pauline May was born in Chicago, Illinois on June 27, 1898. She arrived in Japan as a 
missionary with the Methodist Episcopal Church on September 4, 1922 and by the following 
year was teaching at Kwassui Jo Gakko. May married fellow Methodist missionary Ralph E. 
West on July 11, 1925 and was forced to quit teaching at Kwassui. She did, however, spend 
the next two years teaching at Chinzei, the Methodist boys' school in town. Pauline May 
died in Walnut Creek, California on May 5, 1986 at the age of eighty-seven.

MARY MELTON

Mary E. Melton arrived in Nagasaki on December 7, 1897. Her primary duty was to head 
the Bible Women's Training Department at Kwassui. Born in Jacksonville, Illinois on March 
19, 1873, Melton graduated from Illinois Women's College in 1891, Chicago Training School in 
1894, and the Bible Institute (Chicago) in 1896. At Kwassui, she trained students to be 
evangelists. 

Mary Melton was stricken by a sudden attack of typhoid fever and died in Nagasaki on June 
11, 1916 at the age of forty-three. She is the only missionary from Kwassui to have died in 
Nagasaki and been buried in one of the city's international cemeteries B Sakamoto 
International Cemetery.

HELEN MOORE

Helen G. Moore was born in Albany, New York on April 3, 1903. She became a missionary 
with the Methodist Episcopal Church and first came to Nagasaki in 1931. Moore taught 
economics at Kwassui on three different occasions: September 1931-1933, 1939-1941, and 
1947-67. During WWII she was interned by the Japanese in the Philippines. Helen Moore 
died in Asheville, North Carolina on July 22, 1980 at the age of seventy-seven.

JEANE NOORDHOFF

Jeane J. Noordhoff was born in Alton, Iowa on November 5, 1883. She was a teacher in the 
public schools in Iowa and South Dakota from 1909 to 1911 and then came to Japan as a 
missionary with the Reformed Church in America. Noordhoff spent the year 1914-1915 
teaching at Sturges Seminary in Nagasaki, and then was back in the city in 1937 when she 
served as the president of the American Association of Nagasaki. She remained a 
missionary to Japan until 1952. Jeane Noordhoff died in Orange City, Iowa on September 
29, 1970 at the age of eighty-six.

ALBERT OLTMANS

Albert Oltmans was born in Zuidbroek, Groningen, The Netherlands on November 19, 1854 
and immigrated to the United States in 1873. He received his B.A. from Hope College in 
1883 and then graduated from the New Brunswick Theological Seminary in 1886. Oltmans 
immediately went to Japan as a missionary with the Reformed Church. He and his wife 
Alice [Voorhoorst] arrived in Nagasaki on October 16, 1886.  

Oltmans' arrival coincided with the beginning of construction of the Reformed Church's two 
school buildings. The boys' school, called Steele Academy, was constructed at No. 9 
Higashiyamate and the girls' school, Sturges Seminary, was built nearby at No. 14 
Higashiyamate. Construction was completed in the summer of 1887. Oltmans was placed in 
charge of Steele Academy and Mary Brokaw was named principal of Sturges Seminary.  
Sturges opened on September 14, 1887 with an enrollment was less than twenty; Steele 
Academy opened twelve days later. "The small classes Oltmans had been teaching in 
temporary facilities grew immediately to a student body of more than sixty students. Within 
months enrollment at Steele Academy rose to about a hundred students."

Oltmans administered Steele Academy as its first principal until his departure in 1889. He 
remained a missionary in Japan until his death in Yokohama in June 1939 at the age of 
eighty-four.

CAROLINE PECKHAM

Caroline S. Peckham was born in Bloom City, Wisconsin on February 5, 1891. A missionary 
with the Methodist Episcopal Church, Peckham first came to Japan as a language student 
on November 15, 1915. She spent three terms teaching at Kwassui: 1917-1928, 1930-1941 
& 1948-1957. While in Nagasaki, she also served as treasurer of the Seamen's Home and 
President of the American Association of Nagasaki. Peckham departed Japan in 1962. She 
died in Lebanon, Ohio on December 12, 1982 at the age of ninety-one. 

H.V.S. PEEKE

Harmon Van Slyck Peeke was born in Owasco, New York on November 6, 1866. He received 
his B.A. from Hope College in 1887 and then went to Japan as a missionary with the 
Reformed Church in America. Peeke was in Nagasaki from January 21, 1888 to 1891 
teaching at Tozan Gakuin. He attended New Brunswick Theological Seminary from 1891 to 
1892 and then graduated from Auburn Theological Seminary in 1893. Peeke received his D.
D. from Hope College in 1913. He remained a missionary in Japan until 1929. H.V.S. Peeke 
died in Holland, Michigan on December 27, 1929 at the age of sixty-three. He was survived 
by his wife Vesta Olive Greer. 

CAROLINE VAN PETTEN

Caroline W. Van Petten was born in Washington, Illinois on May 31, 1854. A member of first 
class to admit women at Northwestern; Van Petten later graduated from Mt. Union College 
in Ohio. After the death of her husband, she went to Japan, arriving on September 26, 
1881. Van Petten came to Nagasaki in 1893 as a missionary with the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. While in Nagasaki, Van Petten supervised evangelical work for the Methodist 
mission in Kyushu and the Ryukyus. She died in Santa Monica, California on October 24, 
1916 at the age of sixty-two. 

ALBERTUS PIETERS

Albertus Pieters was born in Alto, Wisconsin on February 5, 1869. He received his B.A. from 
Hope College in1887 and his M.A. from the same institution in1890. Upon his graduation 
from the Western Theological Seminary in 1891, Pieters went to Nagasaki (with his wife 
Emma Kollen) to serve as a missionary with the Reformed Church in America. He served 
two tours of duty in Nagasaki: 1891 to 1898 and 1904 to 1910. During the latter stay, he 
also served as principal of Steele Academy (Tozan Gakuin). On January 31, 1908, Henry K. 
Pieters, the nine-month old son of Albertus and Emma Pieters died and was buried in 
Sakamoto International Cemetery.

After leaving Nagasaki, Pieters remained a missionary in Japan until 1923. He served as a 
professor at Hope College from1923 to 1926 (receiving a Doctor of Divinity there in 1924) 
and a professor at the Western Theological Seminary from 1926 to 1939; Albertus Pieters 
died in Holland, Michigan on December 24, 1955 at the age of eighty-six.   

PAULINE PLACE

Pauline A. Place was born in Pennville, Indiana on March 23, 1888. On September 18, 1916, 
Place came as a Methodist missionary to Nagasaki to teach at Kwassui. She stayed at 
Kwassui until 1927. Place also spent 1930 to 1936 in Nagasaki, at which time she was 
involved in kindergarten and social work in the city. Her elder sister Olive taught music 
from 1920 to 1921 at Kwassui. 

CELESTIN [CHARLES] AND ANTHONY RAMBACH

Celestin [Charles] Rambach, who was born in Schwobsheim, France in 1864, came to 
Nagasaki in 1891 and was one of the original teachers hired by Barth when Kaisei was at 
Hokaura-machi. He was joined by his older brother Anthony at Kaisei on February 2, 1897.  
Anthony, also a native of Schwobsheim, was born January 17, 1853 and became a 
naturalized U.S. citizen at Cincinnati, Ohio on April 28, 1894. Besides teaching at Kaisei, he 
also taught English at the Telegraph School in Umegasaki. Anthony died in Yokohama on 
February 27, 1921 at the age of sixty-eight.  
 
In addition to teaching at Kaisei, Celestin also taught French for years at Nagasaki Koto 
Shogyo Gakko. In 1941, Rambach lost both jobs, as Kaisei was ordered shut down by 
Japanese officials and he was dismissed from his other position because of fears that he 
might be a foreign spy. Interned in Tokyo during World War II, Celestin Rambach remained 
in the city after hostilities ceased. He died in Tokyo on April 23, 1953 at the age of eighty-
nine -- having spent the final sixty-two years of his life in Japan -- and was buried in the 
Yokohama Foreign Cemetery.  

IRVING RAND

In 1901, the U.S. Army built a government hospital in Nagasaki to administer to the needs of 
American soldiers going to and from the Philippines. As early as January 1899, the Nagasaki 
English-language newspaper had announced that the U.S. government was going to establish 
an Army Sanitarium in the city for use by American troops at Manila. It would take more 
than two years, however, for this for this report to become a reality.  

In January 1901, work finally began in earnest when the U.S. Secretary of War instructed 
Major John Hyde, Quartermaster of the U.S. Army Depot in Nagasaki, to lease a building for 
use as a hospital. Japanese officials refused to sanction a Government Military Hospital, 
but did agree to allow the United States to open and maintain temporarily a private hospital 
for army use. The building decided upon, No. 12 Higashiyamate, was owned by the 
Methodist Church. Dr. Irving W. Rand, surgeon of the U.S. Army, was put in charge of 
operations at the hospital. The experiment, envisioned by both the Americans and 
Japanese as temporary from its inception, was soon abandoned. 

ARCHIBALD RIGBY

Archibald E. Rigby was born on June 7, 1871 in Wheeling, Iowa. From December 1, 1900 
to1907, the Methodist missionary taught at Chinzei in Nagasaki. Rigby left the ministry in 
1914 and became farmer and teacher in Iowa. He died there on May 27, 1940 at the age of 
sixty-eight.

DAVID RUIGH

David C. Ruigh was born in Ackley, Hardin County, Iowa on March 25, 1872. He received his 
B.A. from Hope College in 1896 and his M.A. from the same institution in1899. Ruigh also 
graduated from the New Brunswick Theological Seminary in 1899. His wife was Christine 
Carst. From 1902 to 1905, he served as a missionary in China. Ruigh was a missionary in 
Japan from 1905 to 1927. From September 1921 to March 1927, he was principal at Tozan 
Gakuin in Nagasaki. During his stay in Nagasaki, he was also president of the American 
Association of Nagasaki. David Ruigh died in East Williamson, New York on March 15, 1962 
at the age of eighty-nine.

ELIZABETH RUSSELL

Elizabeth Russell was born in Cadiz, Ohio on October 9, 1836, the eldest daughter of James 
and Julia Russell. The Russells had been married in West Liberty, Virginia (later West 
Virginia), and returned there in 1838. The family remained there until 1844, when it moved 
to Wheeling.

Although raised in a Presbyterian-Episcopal family, Elizabeth joined the local Methodist 
Church at age sixteen. In 1856 she left home to enter Washington (Pennsylvania) Female 
Seminary as a full-time boarding student. She graduated in 1859 and returned home to 
Wheeling, where she worked for a while as a photographic painter. In 1861 the Civil War 
came to Wheeling and disrupted the lives of its inhabitants until its conclusion four years 
later. 

From the mid-1860s Elizabeth came to live with her younger sister Julia Chapman, first in 
Cumberland, Maryland and later in Piedmont and Keyser, West Virginia where Julia's 
husband worked. Elizabeth was a school teacher at all three cities. 

In 1873 Elizabeth began organizing Women's Foreign Missionary Societies in the Methodist 
churches around Keyser. Three years later she became Secretary of the West Virginia 
Conference. Then in July 1879 the forty-three-year old Russell offered her services to the 
Cincinnati Branch as a foreign missionary. She was initially assigned to a girls' high school in 
Calcutta, India, but two weeks before her scheduled departure she was informed that she 
would be sent instead to Nagasaki to open a girls' school there. Accompanying her as an 
evangelist would be a woman from Pennsylvania named Jean Gheer, whom she had never 
met. [Much of the information on Elizabeth Russell's early years is taken from Patricia 
McCreary, "Realms of Glory," Kwassui ronbunshu, no. 39 (1996), 251-259.]

Russell and Gheer departed from San Francisco on October 25, 1879 and arrived in 
Nagasaki on November 23. There they stayed in a small house at No. 16 Higashiyamate. By 
December 1 they were teaching English to a twenty-three-year old widow named Kanbai 
Yoshiko (No). By April of the following year, Kanbai remarried and discontinued her 
instruction with Russell and Gheer, but fourteen students did finish the school year at what 
came to be called Kwassui.

In 1880, the school was temporarily transferred to William Alt's spacious former residence 
at Minamiyamate, while a request for funds to build a new structure at Higashiyamate was 
prepared. The funds for the new building were approved in May 1881, construction began in 
June, and by the end of May 1882 the building was officially opened. The school had forty-
three students and one Japanese male teacher, in addition to Russell and Gheer.

Departments added to Kwassui over the next decade included Industrial (sewing and 
embroidery), Science, Bible Training, Music and Art. Additional female missionaries also 
began to arrive in 1883.

In 1885 two important developments occurred: Miss Russell adopted a baby girl from the 
family of her first student, and Miss Gheer went to Fukuoka to establish a girls' school 
there. The adopted daughter was named Ellen May Russell (usually called May). The school 
in Fukuoka was originally designated Eiwa Jogakko, but was later renamed Fukuoka Jogakko.

In 1889 Elizabeth Russell took her first furlough to America, accompanied by young May.  
She visited her sister Julia who was living with her four children in Berlin, Pennsylvania (Mr. 
Chapman had died suddenly seven years earlier). Elizabeth recommended that the family 
move to Delaware, Ohio, the home of the Methodist-supported Ohio Wesleyan College, and 
even helped them select their new home there. Elizabeth and May stayed with the 
Chapmans until returning to Japan in October 1890.

Kwassui continued to grow under Miss Russell's leadership. By 1891 Kwassui offered up to 
fourteen years of schooling: two years of primary, four of preparatory, four of academic, 
and four of collegiate. Even after the closing of the foreign settlement in 1899, Kwassui 
remained open upon receiving approval from local Japanese authorities.

In 1900 Elizabeth Russell went home to her sister's place in Ohio on her second furlough 
(May had been sent back four years earlier to live with the Chapmans and attend local 
schools). Upon departure from Nagasaki, she turned over administration of Kwassui to 
Marianna Young.

While Elizabeth returned to Nagasaki after completing her furlough, May remained in Ohio 
and graduated from high school in 1906. May then entered Ohio Wesleyan as an English 
major. When she graduated with honors in 1910, her adopted mother Elizabeth was there to 
witness the ceremonies, as it coincided with her third home leave. 

Seventy-four-year old Elizabeth Russell made plans once again to return to Nagasaki, this 
time with May accompanying her. Unfortunately, May fell ill on the return trip, and they did 
not reach Nagasaki until January 1911. Elizabeth went back to work at Kwassui, while May 
taught English first at the YWCA and later at Kwassui.

In 1912, Kwassui received official Japanese government recognition, after agreeing to drop 
its primary course. Above high school, there was one year of preparatory work and then 
four years of college. By its 35th anniversary in 1914, Kwassui had more than 300 
students. In July 1919 Kwassui Woman's College also received official government 
recognition.

With Kwassui doing splendidly, the eighty-three-year old Elizabeth Russell decided it was 
time to retire. She departed Nagasaki in May 1919 and in June received a "Blue Ribbon" 
decoration from the emperor before leaving Japan for the final time. May Russell 
accompanied her on the trip home.

Soon after reaching the United States, however, May's health began to deteriorate, and she 
had to check into a tuberculosis sanitarium in Michigan. May was told she could never 
teach again, and decided to pursue an M.A. in Literature from Ohio Wesleyan, which she 
received in 1922. After that, she worked in the Alumni Office at Wesleyan and cared for 
her mother.

Elizabeth Russell would outlive both her younger sister and May, however, as the former 
died in 1922 and May passed away in an Ohio tuberculosis sanitarium two years later at the 
age of thirty-nine. Miss Russell lived four more years, before dying at the age of ninety-one.

H. ERNST SCHMID

In the nineteenth century, it was not uncommon for medical missionaries to serve as 
members of Christian mission stations in Asia. The first medical missionary assigned to 
Nagasaki was Ernst H. Schmid of the American Episcopal Church. In April 1860, Dr. Schmid 
joined the Episcopal missionary C.M. Williams, who had been in Nagasaki since the end of 
June the previous year. The strategy of including a physician in the Nagasaki mission was 
devised by the missionary S. Wells Williams of China (who had visited Nagasaki in September 
1858) and agreed to by the Mission Board of the Episcopal Church. In order to foster good 
will, "A physician should be part of the mission, one who would give his professional services 
free."

Since foreign housing was not yet available upon Schmid's arrival in Nagasaki, he and 
Williams lived and worked out of Kotokuin within Sofukuji Temple. In July 1861, Schmid 
rented No. 4 Higashiyamate within the foreign settlement. According to Guido Verbeck, a 
Reformed Church missionary who lived in Nagasaki at the time, Schmid "opened a very 
successful work among the natives, but was obliged to return home on account of ill health, 
on November 25, 1861." Schmid's departure marked the end of the experiment to attach 
physicians to church missions in Nagasaki.

F.N. SCOTT

On November 17, 1906, Francis Newton Scott came to Nagasaki as a one-year replacement 
for Epperson Fulkerson at Chinzei Gakuin (its name had changed from Chinzei Gakkan the 
previous year), but stayed until 1940. Scott was born in Chesley, Ontario on June 20, 
1870. He later moved to Litchfield, Minnesota where his father became a naturalized U.S. 
citizen. In 1896, Francis received his A.B. from Hamblin University and three years later 
graduated from Drew Seminary, the Methodist training institution in Madison, New Jersey.  
In December 1899, Scott married Annie J. McLellan of Nova Scotia. Their first child, 
Frances Mary, was born in 1901 in Brown Valley, Minnesota.  

The Scotts initially came to Japan in 1903, where Francis served as a Methodist missionary 
in Nagoya. A year after the arrival of Francis and Annie Scott in Nagasaki in 1906, a son, 
Harlan Paul, was born to the couple. Tragedy was not too far behind, however, as Frances 
died of diphtheria on January 3, 1909 in Nagasaki and was buried in Sakamoto International 
Cemetery. Harlan died two years later in California. As a memorial to the two children, the 
Scotts helped raise money to establish a kindergarten at Akunoura in Nagasaki. Annie 
Scott for years headed this school.

F.N. Scott retired on November 1, 1940 and he and Annie moved to Ontario, California. She 
passed away there on July 24, 1942 and Francis followed December 21, 1947 at the age of 
seventy-seven. 

LUMAN SHAFER

Luman J, Shafer was born in Vintonton, New York on November 21, 1887. Shafer received 
his B.A. from Rutgers in 1909 and his M.A. from the same institution in 1912. He also 
graduated from the New Brunswick Theological Seminary in 1912. Upon graduation, Shafer 
became a Reformed Church missionary to Japan, a position he maintained until 1935. He 
served at Tozan Gakuin in Nagasaki on three occasions: 1919-1921, 1923 and 1925. While in 
Nagasaki, Shafer also held the position of secretary to the local YMCA. On a sad note, on 
January 19, 1921, his second son, Luman, Jr., died of influenza at the age of two and was 
buried at the addition to Sakamoto International Cemetery. From 1935 to 1955, Luman 
Shafer served as the secretary of the Foreign Missionary Board. He died at Penney Farms, 
Florida on January 1, 1958 at the age of seventy.

MARIAN SIMONS

Marian G. Simons was born in Detroit, Michigan on May 9, 1899. She arrived in Japan on 
September 5, 1930 as a missionary with the Methodist Episcopal Church. From 1937 
to1941, she taught at Kwassui was employed as a social worker at the Oura Community 
Center in Nagasaki. She returned to Nagasaki after WWII and from 1958 to 1961 she 
worked at the Yuai Kan Social Center. Marian Simons died at Asheville, North Carolina on 
March 5, 1981 at the age of eighty-one.

MAUDE SIMONS

Maude E. Simons was in born Fredericktown, Ohio on January 13, 1865. On April 27, 1889, 
Simons came to Nagasaki as a missionary with the Methodist Episcopal Church and 
organized and taught in the art department at Kwassui Jo Gakko. She transferred to 
Yokohama in 1892. Maude Simons died in a ship accident in Tokyo Harbor on July 29, 1898 
at the age of thirty-three. 

FRANK H. SMITH

  Frank Herron Smith was born in Viola, Illinois on March 6, 1879. He received his A.B. from 
State University of Kansas in 1902 and his B.D. from the Garrett Biblical Institute in1905.  
Smith arrived in Nagoya, Japan on September 12, 1905 as a Methodist Episcopal Church 
missionary. From 1909 to 1914, he was in Nagasaki at Chinzei, and he served as the acting 
principal of the school from 1910 to 1912. During WWII, he broadcasted to the Japanese 
over American radio. Smith retired from missionary work in 1946 and later served as the 
Superintendent of Japanese Methodist Work on the Pacific Coast. Frank Smith died in Los 
Altos, California in August 1965.

LIDA SMITH

Lida B. Smith was born in Collamer, New York on May 5, 1859. She came to Nagasaki on 
December 12, 1885 as a missionary with the Methodist Episcopal Church and was sent to 
work at a school in Fukuoka until December 1889. Smith, who was the sister of Flora Smith 
[Mrs. C.S. Long], later spent two terms of service in Nagasaki (1896-97 and 1909-10) 
teaching at Kwassui before her retirement in 1912. Lida Smith died of pneumonia in South 
Orange, New Jersey on April 9, 1926 at the age of sixty-six. 

DAVID SPENCER

David Spencer came to Nagasaki in September 1886, and became the fourth principal of 
Chinzei, serving in this capacity until 1892. Born in Lemon, Pennsylvania on January 31, 
1854, he became a member of the Methodist Church at age fourteen. Spencer graduated 
from Wyoming Seminary in 1879 and Drew Theological Seminary in 1884. In May 1882, he 
married Mary Ann Pike of Factoryville, Pennsylvania. They went to Japan in 1884, with 
David serving as a professor with the Philander Smith Biblical Institute. The Spencers 
spent eight years in Nagasaki, where they had three children, including a son, Robert (born 
1888), who later became a Methodist missionary and teacher at Chinzei himself. David 
Spencer retired in October 1926 and passed away in Pasadena, California on October 31, 
1929 at the age of seventy-five.

BERTHA STARKEY

Bertha F. Starkey was born in McCutchenville, Ohio on November 23, 1881. She arrived in 
Nagasaki on November 6, 1910 as a missionary with the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Starkey taught at Kwassui Jo Gakko until 1916. She later taught in Fukuoka, Korea and 
Manchuria. Bertha Starkey died in Asheville, North Carolina on August 11, 1976 at the age 
of ninety-four. 

HENRY STOUT

Henry Stout was born on January 19, 1838 in Raritan, New Jersey, the third child of the 
farmer/carpenter John Baptist Dumont Stout and the devout Christian Ann Berger. Henry 
attended a small private school in Chester, New Jersey and later studied at Rutgers 
College. Upon graduation from the latter institution in 1865, he entered the New Brunswick 
Theological Seminary of the Reformed Church in America. In May 1868, Stout completed 
his work at the seminary and was ordained at his home church in Raritan. The same month, 
Guido Verbeck requested that a Reformed Church missionary be sent to assist him in 
Nagasaki. In June, Stout married Elizabeth Provost and in November the newlyweds were 
commissioned as missionaries of the Reformed Church. The Stouts left for Japan in 
January 1869, expecting to join Rev. and Mrs. Guido Verbeck at the church's Nagasaki 
station.

Arriving in Nagasaki in March 1869, the Stouts were dismayed to discover that the 
Verbecks were in the process of packing their goods in order to move to Tokyo. In less 
than two weeks, the Verbecks were gone and the Stouts were left to operate the Nagasaki 
mission on their own out of Daitokuji Temple.  

The prohibition against propagating Christianity outside of the foreign settlement was still in 
effect, so Henry Stout took over Verbeck's position at the government school (Kounkan) 
teaching English. Stout, like Verbeck before him, had hoped to use this base as a means to 
reach Japanese students and foster goodwill among Japanese government officials.  

On January 26, 1870, the Stouts were blessed with the birth of their first child, a son whom 
they christened John Provost Stout. A week later, Henry Stout purchased a large, brick 
residence for the family on the hill at No. 14 Higashiyamate overlooking the harbor. The 
building, which had been built six years earlier for Rainbow, Lewis and Co. at a cost of 
approximately $4,000, was available at auction to Stout for $1,600 because of the trade 
depression that had occurred in Nagasaki after the opening of the foreign settlement at 
Hyogo. Stout proudly listed his address as "Green Bluff" in his official correspondence with 
the Mission Board of the Reformed Church.

As early as March 1870, Stout voiced reservations about the effectiveness of teaching 
English at Kounkan, but he continued instruction because there was little else the Japanese 
government would allow him to do. By mid 1872, he not only was teaching five and a half 
hours a week at the government school, but also had a class for eight young men in the 
evening. In the meantime, the Stouts had become the proud parents of a daughter, Anna 
Berger Stout, who was born on March 19 in Nagasaki.

Stout's dissatisfaction with merely teaching English at the government school is evident 
from a November 1872 letter in which he announced that he had finally become a full-
fledged missionary after quitting his position at the school over new government 
regulations. He also announced in the same letter that since August he had had ten young 
men reading the New Testament every night at his home without any particular harassment 
from local government officials. He candidly admitted that the students came at first to 
learn English, but as he discovered, "men are sometimes caught with guile...," and he was 
able to teach about Christianity in this manner. 

Around this time, Stout talked to a local official about the prospects of female education in 
Nagasaki, and concluded that something might come of it. The official said that it might be 
arranged to have some girls come to the Stout house every day to be taught by Mrs. 
Stout, and that this might be the beginning of a girls' school. Henry Stout then appealed to 
the Mission Board to send two additional female teachers to Nagasaki to prepare for such a 
school. By the following month, a small girls' school within the Stout house at Higashiyamate 
had gone into operation, with ten students who came for an hour or two a day, and the 
promise of eight more. 

At the beginning of February 1873, the girls' school had taken on so many pupils that it had 
to be removed to a larger building in the city. Stout was asked to teach some boys in the 
same school in the afternoon, and agreed to do so if he were given sole control over 
instruction. As a result of these developments, Elizabeth Stout taught about fifty girls and 
Henry Stout about thirty boys at the school.

Word came later in the month that the Japanese government had decided not to enforce 
the ban on Christianity, so Henry Stout felt it was time to act. He took a Bible to the 
school and invited those who desired to do so, to remain and read it after the usual 
lessons. The incident caused the schools to be disbanded. Stout had clearly pushed too 
hard too soon; enforcement of the edicts against Christianity may have eased, but the laws 
against Christianity were still on the books. 

Smaller classes of eleven girls and fifteen boys were resumed at the Stout residence, with 
Bible reading in addition to regular classes. The Stouts also began a Sunday School in their 
parlor. In June, a large school house was constructed. There the first baptisms took place, 
the first native prayer meeting was held, and the Gospel was publicly preached. The 
baptism of three students, including Segawa Asashi who would become the most important 
Japanese Protestant minister of his day in western Japan, took place in early September.  
The following month, Stout began public preaching, with the assistance of Segawa, at the 
new building. Finally, in February 1874, a boarding house for up to sixteen men was built on 
the grounds.

Henry Stout was having so much success reaching students through his school that he 
decided to concentrate more on education. Just as he made this decision, however, his wife'
s poor health proved the downfall of the girls' school. The school, which had been operated 
on a limited basis in 1873, finally closed in the summer of 1874. While Elizabeth Stout's 
school did not prove successful, in the meantime a number of Japanese schools for females 
had opened. Henry Stout, long an advocate of women's education in Japan, welcomed the 
increased Japanese interest in girls' schools. 

The situation in Nagasaki certainly appeared hopeful, and Stout set about looking for a site 
to establish a church for Japanese. He had determined that the school on the hill at 
Higashiyamate was too far removed from the native town to conduct successful evangelical 
work, but failed in his attempt to find a suitable building in the city. He therefore, in June, 
decided to build his church at No. 5 Umegasaki, which was still within the confines of the 
foreign settlement but situated at street-level and contiguous to the native town. On 
August 20, before the building could be completed, however, disaster struck when a typhoon 
hit Nagasaki. The typhoon resulted in a two-month delay and a financial setback, but the 
church was up and operating by the end of the year. The structure, often referred to as 
Umegasaki Church, was 28 x 50 feet and under normal circumstances had seating for 100 
people. It also included a 270-pound bell from a Buddhist monastery that was donated by 
a friend of Stout's. The construction marked the first Protestant church in Nagasaki built 
for Japanese residents of the city. Also built on the same lot was a bookstore attached to 
the mission.

In 1875, Stout, using Segawa's name, rented a building in the native town at Sakaya-machi 
as an additional preaching place. On Christmas Day the following year, Stout organized 
Nagasaki Itchi Kyokai (Nagasaki Union Church) on the site, with ten adults and two baptized 
children as members. Among those baptized here was Tomegawa Ichiro, a friend of Segawa'
s. Over time, Tomegawa would prove to be a vital contributor to the Reformed Church 
mission in Kyushu.

On numerous occasions in 1875 and 1876, Stout pleaded with both the Mission Board and 
the Woman's Board for help in Nagasaki, especially in the area of female teachers so that a 
formal girls' school could be started up again -- preferably adjacent to the other mission 
buildings on the hill at No. 14 Higashiyamate. Exasperated at the slow pace of progress in 
this regard, Elizabeth Stout, in the spring of 1877, agreed to reopen the girls' school in their 
home upon the condition that female teachers soon be sent to Nagasaki.  

In 1877, Stout sent Segawa to the newly-established Japan Union Seminary in Tokyo to 
continue his theological education. Segawa stayed about a year, during which time he was 
designated a licensed preacher and passed part of the examination for ordination. He 
returned to Nagasaki in the summer of 1878 and married Fujiyama Tsuya, a young woman 
who had studied for three years at Ferris Seminary in Yokohama. 

In July 1878, the sisters Elizabeth and Mary Farrington from Fishkill, New York were finally 
sent by the Woman's Board to open a girls' school in Nagasaki. The sisters arrived on  
August 25 and began teaching the following month. By mid-October, however, the elder 
sister was in ill health. The sisters left Nagasaki for Yokohama in January 1879 in an effort 
to seek treatment. They eventually returned to the U.S., having spent less than five 
months in Nagasaki. 

The decade thus ended for the Stouts and the Reformed Church in Nagasaki on another 
disappointing note. Schools were opened and closed with great frequency, as the Stouts 
proved unable, especially given Elizabeth Stout's poor health, to operate them alone. When 
help did arrive, it too proved inadequate. Evangelical efforts moved forward after 1873, but 
Henry Stout still felt that education was the tool to religious advancement, and this was an 
area that had to be improved. 

As far as a Reformed Church school for boys in Nagasaki was concerned, conditions in 1878 
seemed ripe for a new beginning. Stout said that what was needed to make this a reality 
was the dispatch of another missionary to Nagasaki. An additional man attached to the 
mission would also allow the Stouts to return to the United States on furlough -- something 
they had not yet been able to do during their ten-year stay in Nagasaki. The Mission Board 
agreed to send an additional missionary couple, Eugene and Emilie Booth, but they did not 
arrive in Nagasaki until months after the Stouts had departed for America.

The Stouts left in the spring of 1879 but the Booths did not reach Nagasaki until December 
9, just in time to witness the wedding of Tomegawa Ichiro. While attending the Annual 
Meeting of the Japan Mission of the Reformed Church in America at Yokohama in 
December 1880, Booth participated in two motions concerning the Nagasaki Station. The 
first authorized the station to acquire the title to No. 16 Higashiyamate, the piece of land 
that separated the Reformed Church property from the road. The second suggested that 
the Reformed Church 
be removed from the Foreign Settlement to the native town. Neither motion was 
immediately acted upon, but they clearly identified two issues that were important to the 
development of the Nagasaki Station.

The Stouts returned to Nagasaki on December 19, 1880. Henry Stout was reinvigorated by 
his leave and was ready to lay what he hoped were the final plans for Reformed Church 
schools in the town. 

Even though the Methodists had opened Kwassui Jo Gakko in December 1879, Henry Stout 
felt that there was room for another girls' school in Nagasaki; all the Reformed Church 
needed was some money and a qualified female missionary to teach. The Reformed Church 
already had Japanese assistants in place in Nagasaki to aid such a missionary. Stout also 
believed there were enough students for a school, as many who would have preferred going 
to a Dutch Reform school were simply biding their time in other mission schools. He also 
thought that the Methodists had erred in building a large school and making plans to 
subsidize the education of most of their students. 

Stout disagreed with the aim of many mission schools for girls, feeling that an education 
should be useful in life. He liked to tell the story of how useless he felt an English education 
was for most Japanese girls. "I once heard an old man lament that while he understood 
that his daughter had made quite a reputation for writing letters in English to America, he 
had to hang his head in shame for the wretched Japanese she used in her letters to him."  
He also disliked the Americanization or Europeanization of female education in Japan. "The 
[mission] schools are built upon European plans, and the studies are chiefly English. It 
seems to us that it would be better to establish a boarding school in a number of Japanese 
houses....There they could be taught not only English and Japanese branches of learning, but 
to be useful as wives and members of society when they leave their school." If he were 
given the opportunity to set up a school in Nagasaki, this is the way he would conduct 
female education. 

In 1884, events began to occur that laid the foundation for permanent Reformed Church 
schools for both girls and boys. Up until that time, the Stouts basically had operated alone.  
Finally, in late 1883 and throughout 1884, four missionaries -- two males and two females -
- were added to the Nagasaki station. 

The influx of personnel freed Stout to open a short course in theology in September to 
three students. The two male missionaries worked on their Japanese language skills and 
helped Japanese students with their English. The two new female members devoted their 
time almost exclusively to the study of Japanese until just before the end of the year when 
they took a few girls into their home and created the nucleus of a school. 

Not all of the new missionary personnel, however, worked out. One of the women resigned 
the following year to get married, and one of the men had a difference of opinion with 
Stout. He did not believe that a mission school was needed in Nagasaki, and because of his 
arguments with Stout over the matter, he asked to be transferred to Tokyo. 

In October 1886, Albert Oltmans arrived in Nagasaki to replace the missionary transferred 
to Tokyo, and the building of the schools finally got underway. The boys' school, called 
Steele Academy, and the girls' school, Sturges Seminary, were both constructed on the hill 
in the foreign settlement near the Methodist schools. "Construction was carried on 
simultaneously at the two sites, beginning in the fall of 1886; the work was completed in the 
summer of 1887. Stout himself not only served as architect, but also supervised all the 
construction work."
Oltmans was placed in charge of Steele Academy and the remaining female missionary was 
named principal of Sturges Seminary. 

Sturges Seminary opened in the new building on September 14, 1887 with fewer than 
twenty students and Steele Academy opened twelve days later. Although enrollment at the 
latter was originally poor, within months there were almost hundred students. Steele not 
only had an Academic Department under its new structure, but the theological classes 
taught by Stout and his Japanese assistant were brought into the school as the Theological 
Department. Oltmans administered the school while Stout concentrated on theological 
education. In January 1888 a young graduate of Hope College, H.V.S. Peeke, came to 
Nagasaki to help Oltmans with the teaching at Steele.

With educational matters finally stabilized and in good hands, the Stouts took their second 
furlough to the U.S. from early 1888 to early 1889. Upon his return to Nagasaki, the Tokyo 
and Nagasaki branches of the Japan Mission of the Reformed Church in America split, with 
Nagasaki from this time on being referred to as the South Japan Mission. This meant that 
at the end of Henry Stout's second decade in Nagasaki, two of the goals that he had fought 
for over the years had been achieved -- the establishment of Reformed Church mission 
schools in Nagasaki and the independence of the Nagasaki Station from the dominance of 
the north. 

The last decade of the nineteenth century opened on a positive note for Stout and the 
Reformed Church in Nagasaki, but soon turned to tragedy. In the summer of 1890, Carrie 
Lanterman arrived to teach English and calisthenics at Sturges. Two years later, she 
became principal of the school, but died suddenly in September of the same year at the 
young age of thirty. A little more than a month later, twenty-five-year old Sara Couch 
arrived in Nagasaki. Couch was originally assigned to work as an evangelist, but because of 
Lanterman's death, she had to abandon her plans and assume charge of Sturges.  

In 1895, the Stouts returned to America on a leave of absence and were forced to remain 
there for three years due to an illness suffered by Elizabeth Stout. They returned to 
Nagasaki in 1898, but Elizabeth never fully regained her health.

In 1898, a very serious rift broke out between Henry Stout and two missionaries who joined 
him in Nagasaki in the late 1880s and early 1890s, H.V.S. Peeke and Albertus Pieters. The 
dispute went on for years, and eventually led to Stout's unceremonious departure from 
Japan. Along the way, Stout broke off social relations with the two men, even going long 
periods when he would not speak to them outside of official meetings. Peeke felt that Stout 
had lost touch with recent developments in Nagasaki.  

All the while Henry Stout was feuding with Peeke and Pieters, Elizabeth's Stout's health 
continued to deteriorate and she finally died of acute bronchitis on March 2, 1902. She was 
buried in Sakamoto International Cemetery. Henry Stout continued to live with his 
daughter Anna (who was also a missionary with the Reformed Church) in Nagasaki until 
early 1905 when Anna decided to get married, leave the mission and move to Kobe. With 
his wife dead and his daughter about to leave, Henry determined that his feud with church 
leaders was no longer worth fighting and he announced his resignation from the mission.

Just as Stout was about to leave, however, he received an offer to supervise the 
construction of the Y.M.C.A. headquarters in Nagasaki. This kept him in Nagasaki for 
another year and a half, during which time he stayed at the Japan Hotel. He eventually 
departed Nagasaki on May 8, 1906. From 1907 to 1911, he served as a pastor for two 
churches in his home state of New Jersey.

In 1911, Henry Stout returned to Japan one last time to see his daughter and grandchildren 
in Kobe. Before leaving Japan, he also traveled to Nagasaki where he paid a final visit to his 
wife's grave. Soon after he arrived back in America, Stout passed away on February 16, 
1912 at his son's home in Lakehurst, New Jersey at the age of seventy-four.  

ANNA STRYKER

Anna K. Stryker was the daughter of a Presbyterian minister. She graduated from a female 
seminary in Saratoga, New York and then from 1897 to the autumn of 1900, she taught at 
Sturges Seminary in Nagasaki. The Reformed Church in America missionary retired in 1900 
and returned to U.S. where she studied osteopathy. She later married William Clark. Anna 
Stryker died in September 1932 at the age of seventy-one. 


MARY SUGANUMA

Dr. Mary Suganuma, a native of the United States, came to Nagasaki with her Japanese 
husband Suganuma Motonosuke (called Joe Suganuma by the foreign community) in 1893 
and operated a women's hospital here for almost three decades. Mary, who received her 
medical license from a homeopathic institute in Cleveland, Ohio, arrived in Japan in 1891 
with the intention of conducting medical missionary work with the Methodist Church.  
However, in February 1893, at the age of thirty, she married and was thus forced to sever 
her official relationship with the Methodist mission. In June 1921, fire destroyed both Mary's 
home and practice at Junin-machi. While much was lost in the fire, Mary began the struggle 
to open another hospital out of her new home at No. 15B Minamiyamate. Six months later, 
however, her husband died suddenly. Mary decided to return to the United States to live 
with her adopted Japanese son who was a student at Garrett Biblical Institute in Chicago.  
Dr. Mary Suganuma left Nagasaki on March 15, 1922, after having served the needy in the 
community for twenty-eight years.

DAISY SUTTON

Daisy B. Sutton was born in Welches, Virginia on November 17, 1880. She arrived Nagasaki 
in March 1908 and taught at Kwassui Jo Gakko until December 29, 1909 when she married 
a Lutheran missionary named Lewis S.G. Miller. She served with him in Kyushu into the 
1930s. Daisy Sutton died in Virginia on October 23, 1933 at the age of fifty-two.

MINNIE TAYLOR

Minnie Taylor was born in Rockland Lake, New York on May 9, 1868. She graduated from 
the California State Normal School and later became a mission schoolteacher in Los 
Angeles. In 1910, Taylor became a missionary to Japan for the Reformed Church in 
America. In 1914 she came to Nagasaki to teach at Tozan Gakuin and remained there until 
the school's closing in 1931. While in Nagasaki, she was joined by her mother, Harriet M. 
Taylor. Harriet Taylor (born in Milan, Ohio on August 31, 1840) died on September 10, 1919 
and was buried in Sakamoto International Cemetery. Minnie Taylor remained as a 
missionary in Japan until 1937. She died in Hollywood, California on April 15, 1970 at the 
age of one-hundred-and one.

G. ERNEST TRUEMAN

G. Ernest Trueman was a native of Strathroy, Canada, who came to Japan at the end of 
1908 to work for the Y.M.C.A. He married a woman from Oberlin, Ohio on April 12, 1910, 
and almost immediately took his young bride down to Nagasaki for a three-week 
introduction to the city and local Y.M.C.A. station there. Mr. and Mrs. Trueman would 
return the following year to begin an eight-year stay in the city.  

The Trueman's arrived in Nagasaki on April 11, 1911, so that Ernest could take over as 
Secretary of the Y.M.C.A. from J. Merle Davis, who had been in that position since 1905.  
Once in Nagasaki, the Truemans resided at No. 13A Higashiyamate. Trueman's tenure in 
Nagasaki saw an increase in enrollment for the Y.M.C.A. and the construction of a dormitory 
for students.  

From May 15, 1915 to September 5, 1916, the Truemans were on leave from Nagasaki.  
During this period, Ernest received his M.A. in Religious Education from Columbia University.  
Other than this educational leave and a one-month tour of Y.M.C.A.s in China and Korea in 
the summer of 1914, Trueman had served the local population faithfully for over seven 
years when he departed for Siberia with the R.R.S.C. in September 1917.

Trueman's mission was to distribute "comfort" goods to Allied soldiers. This, in a sense, was 
a cruel twist of U.S. Secretary of State Elihu Root's original intention to have the Y.M.C.A. 
go to Russia to help better relations between the American and Russian people; instead Y.M.
C.A. workers were aiding invading armies.  

Trueman had high hopes for both his mission ("A wonderful opportunity is before us to 
serve thousands of soldiers during the winter and thanks to the leading force of God which 
has given the Association its wonderful organization both at home and abroad, I believe that 
we shall be able to step in almost immediately fully equipped for the task.") and that of the 
R.R.S.C. ("[The engineers] practically hold the key to the transportation problem in Siberia 
on which depends to a very great extent the success of our army work for the Czechs and 
other Allied soldiers."), but neither achieved their desired ends. Trueman was back from 
Siberia and out of Nagasaki by March 1919 and the R.R.S.C. at best secured mixed results.  

Ernest Trueman, for his part, came back to Nagasaki briefly, but then, accompanied by his 
wife, left permanently for Nagoya on March 17, 1919. Mrs. Trueman, unfortunately, passed 
away in Nagoya less than two years after the move.

MILTON VAIL

Milton S. Vail was born in Concord, New Hampshire in 1853. He studied at Pennington 
Seminary in Manheim, Germany and graduated from Boston University in1877. Vail sailed 
for Japan on August 15, 1879 as a missionary with the Methodist Episcopal Church. On 
January 1, 1885, he married Emma J. Whitbeck, the principal of Ferris Academy. From 
1895 to 1900, Vail taught at Chinzei in Nagasaki; he left due to ill health. He was principal of 
the Anglo-Japanese Training School in San Francisco from 1903 to 1925. Milton Vail died in 
Oakland, CA, on September 19, 1928. 


GUIDO F. VERBECK

Of all the Christian missionaries and educators who came to Nagasaki in the aftermath of 
Perry's opening of the country, the most influential was undoubtedly the Dutch-born, 
American-trained minister Guido Verbeck. Although best known for work that he later 
accomplished in Tokyo -- he advocated the use of the German language for Japanese 
medical studies, encouraged the dispatching of the first Japanese diplomatic mission to the 
United States and Europe, supported the establishment of the prefectural system, and 
inspired the Education Order of 1872 and the Conscription Ordinance of 1873 -- Verbeck 
spent the first ten years of his Japan stay in Nagasaki. Here he cultivated the relationships 
and acquired the skills that would lead to his subsequent fame in the capital.

Verbeck was born Guido Herman Fridolin Verbeek on January 28, 1830 in the Dutch city of 
Zeist. Here he grew up speaking Dutch, German, French and English. At the age of twenty-
two, upon the invitation of his sister and brother-in-law, Verbeck traveled to the United 
States to work at a foundry. The factory, located outside of Green Bay, Wisconsin, had 
been developed by a Moravian missionary to build machinery for steamboats. Verbeck 
stayed in Wisconsin for almost a year, during which time he changed the spelling of his name 
to "Verbeck" in the hope that Americans could better pronounce it.

Guido Verbeck went to Brooklyn looking for work, but soon moved on to Helena, Arkansas, 
where he was employed as an engineer. There, in the summer of 1854, he developed 
cholera and spent more than a month in bed. It was during this period that Verbeck is said 
to have vowed to become a missionary if he survived the illness.

Upon his recovery, Verbeck decided to return to Green Bay to be near his sister and 
brother-in-law. Less than a year later, he followed them to Auburn, New York, when the 
brother-in-law moved there to attend a theological seminary. Guido soon thereafter 
enrolled as a student himself at the seminary.

At the time, upstate New York was a hotbed of foreign missionary activity, and one of the 
people Verbeck met there was Rev. Samuel R. Brown, who had previously served as a 
missionary in China from 1838 to 1847. It was through this acquaintance with Brown that 
Verbeck would eventually make his way to Japan.

While Verbeck was training to become a missionary at the Auburn Theological Seminary, 
events half way around the world in Nagasaki were unfolding in a manner that would greatly 
affect the young student's life. In September 1858, two Protestant missionaries residing in 
China, S. Wells Williams and Edward Syle, traveled to Nagasaki to ascertain what openings 
might be available for introducing Protestant Christianity into Japan after the port was 
opened to foreign trade and residence in July of the following year. While in Nagasaki, they 
met Rev. Henry Wood, chaplain of the U.S.S. Powhattan, which was in the harbor at the 
time. Williams, Syle and Wood then took it upon themselves to write to the directors of the 
Episcopal, Reformed, and Presbyterian mission boards in the United States, urging them to 
appoint missionaries to Japan.

In response to the letter sent to the Mission Board of the Reformed Church, Brown and 
Verbeck were selected to go to Japan and open a mission there. Brown was undoubtedly 
chosen because of his experience in China, while Verbeck was selected because of his 
language skills. The Dutch had been the only Westerners allowed in Japan since 1640, and 
even they had been confined to the tiny, man-made island of Dejima in Nagasaki Harbor.  
Since Nagasaki was to be one of the treaty ports open to foreigners as of July 1859, 
Reformed Church leaders assumed (correctly, as it turned out) that a missionary with both 
Dutch and English language skills would initially have an advantage. Verbeck met these 
qualifications, and was contacted by the Board in January 1859 to see if he would be 
interested in going to Nagasaki. After meeting with Board members in New York City, 
Verbeck decided to take up the challenge of conducting missionary work in Japan.

On March 22, 1859, Guido Verbeck was licensed and ordained an evangelist by the 
Presbytery of Cayuga, New York, and on the following day he was received as a member of 
the Reformed Church classis of the same city. He then left Auburn on April 15 for 
Philadelphia. There three days later he married Maria Manion, a young woman from Auburn 
that he had met while studying at the seminary.

After a short honeymoon, Guido and Maria Verbeck sailed from New York on May 7 aboard 
the Surprise destined for Shanghai. Accompanying them were the Rev. and Mrs. Brown and 
the medical missionary Duane B. Simmons and his wife.
The ship arrived on August 25 in Hong Kong, where, because of storms in the region, it was 
forced to stay for about a month before moving on to Shanghai. In mid-October, Verbeck 
met with S.W. Williams, Syle and Wood, the signatories of the letter which had led to his 
being sent out to Asia. Soon thereafter, Brown and Simmons left for Kanagawa to establish 
a mission there.

On November 4, 1859, Verbeck went alone to Nagasaki, arriving on the night of the 7th and 
coming ashore the following morning. John Liggins and Channing Moore Williams, 
missionaries with the American Episcopal Church, allowed him to stay with them at their 
residence in Shofukuji Temple until he could find a place of his own to rent. Verbeck 
received protection from the U.S. Consul, although officially he never became an American 
citizen.

Since housing in the foreign settlement had not yet been constructed, Verbeck was forced 
to look for a building in the native town. He found one just below the quarters of Liggins 
and Williams and moved in on December 5. With a house finally secured, Verbeck was able 
to write his pregnant wife to join him; she arrived December 29.

Marion Verbeck welcomed a daughter into the world on January 26, 1860. In honor of being 
the first Christian child born in Japan since its reopening to the world, the girl was baptized 
Emma Japonica Verbeck. Joy, however, soon turned to sorrow with Emma's passing on 
February 9. She was buried in the international cemetery at Inasa, across the harbor from 
the foreign settlement. The loss for the young couple was almost unbearable.

Since it was still prohibited to preach Christianity outside the foreign settlement and for 
Japanese to become Christians, Guido Verbeck and the other missionaries were limited 
primarily to studying the Japanese language, preparing Christian materials for the day when 
the proscription of the religion might be lifted, and teaching the English language to very 
eager Japanese students.

The tragically early death of their first born did not deter the Verbecks from attempting to 
create a family during their decade in Nagasaki. Their second full year in town began 
happily with the birth of their son William on January 18, 1861. With a child now to care for, 
concerns over the sanitary conditions of their residence led the Verbecks to look for a new 
house higher up the hill in the native town. They finally found one and moved into it in 
November.  

In May 1861, Guido had asked permission of the Mission Board to rent a lot at 
Higashiyamate in the foreign settlement. C.M. Williams of the Episcopal Church had already 
rented lot No. 11 with the intention of constructing a church there, and Verbeck thought 
the Reformed Church should also have property in the area. Verbeck rented No. 3 
Higashiyamate on 1 July 1861, but never built anything on the land and sold it two years 
later.

January 1863 saw the birth of a daughter, whom the Verbecks again named Emma 
Japonica. Their son William, almost two years old at the time, spoke Japanese better than 
English.

Political events in Japan made Verbeck fear for his safety and that of his family. The 
murder of a British visitor from Shanghai, Charles Richardson, by retainers of the Satsuma 
domain in September 1862, had set in motion a series of events that made it very 
dangerous for foreigners living in Japan at the time. Verbeck was warned by one of his 
students that his life was in danger, so he moved his family from the hills of the native town 
to the island of Dejima, which was more easily defended by Western ships in the harbor.

Even Dejima proved dangerous, however, and on the recommendation of the foreign consuls 
the Verbecks went to Shanghai in May. Here they stayed until mid-October, when 
conditions were deemed safe enough to return to Nagasaki. 

1864 saw the Verbecks change residences again. In July, they moved to a house near the 
foreign settlement. By the time of their departure in March 1869, the Verbecks were living 
in quarters at Daitokuji Temple. Three more children had also been added to the family 
between 1864 and 1868.

Verbeck had been teaching English to Japanese students at his home since the early days 
of his stay in Nagasaki. In January 1864, in spite of concerns for his safety caused by 
samurai attacks on foreigners, Verbeck began to work more closely with local Japanese 
government officials in Nagasaki. The Nagasaki bugyo was so pleased with the English-
language ability of his two interpreters who had studied under Verbeck, that he proposed 
that a foreign language be established with Verbeck as principal. The school, called 
Yogakusho in Japanese, was established in the native town at Edo-machi. Verbeck initially 
taught there two hours a day, five days a week for an annual salary of $1200. Soon there 
were more than one hundred students at the school.

Most of 1864 and 1865 were spent teaching English at the government school in Nagasaki.  
In the latter year, the school underwent a number of changes. Early in 1865, French and 
Russian were added to the curriculum, and the school was transferred to Omura-machi and 
renamed Gogakusho. In September, the school was moved to Shin-machi and given the 
name Seibikan. Here, Verbeck taught both German and upper-level English classes. 

In 1866, Verbeck began to play another important role in the education of young Japanese 
men;
he sent the first of more than 500 boys to the United States, where they were aided by the 
Reformed Church and Mission Board. The first two that he sponsored attended the U.S. 
Naval Academy. The following year, Verbeck sent two students from Higo to study at 
Rutgers College, which was the college of the Reformed Church in America.
By the fall of 1867, Verbeck's teaching had achieved such recognition that he could write 
that the daimyo of Kaga, Satsuma, Tosa and Hizen had all contacted him about establishing 
schools like the one in Nagasaki in their domains. He remained in Nagasaki for a little more 
than a year after this, however; long enough to witness one more change of schools there in 
the aftermath of the Meiji Restoration. The Seibikan was closed in 1868 and replaced by 
the Kounkan. At the same time, the daimyo of Hizen established his own school nearby.  
Verbeck taught on alternate days at each school. This gave him access to even more 
students who would play an active role in the new Meiji government. It would be these 
students who would call Verbeck away from Nagasaki to the new capital city of Tokyo.
Missionary work for Verbeck proved to be mostly preparatory in nature. Early on, he tried 
to establish trust among the Japanese and to develop his Japanese language skills. In 1862, 
upon the request of two young Japanese students, Verbeck opened the first Bible study 
class in modern Japan. Verbeck was wise enough to realize that the primary motive of the 
students was still instruction in the English language, but he was willing to reach them by 
any means that he could.

In other matters, C.M. Williams' Episcopal church at Higashiyamate was opened in 
September 1862, making it the first Protestant church in Japan. Verbeck led the singing 
and played the harmonium at Sunday services there. With Williams' move to Higashiyamate, 
this left Verbeck and the elderly German physician Siebold as the only Westerners living 
outside the foreign settlement.

The first major achievement for Verbeck in his missionary work at Nagasaki came in May 
1866, when he baptized Murata Wakasa-no-kami and his brother Ayabe from neighboring 
Hizen. These baptisms were more than the entire Protestant missionary force had been 
able to achieve in Japan up to that time.

Anti-Christian feelings were still strong in some quarters, however, as is shown by the 1867 
publication of a Japanese-language pamphlet in Edo. It was later translated into English as 
Tales of Nagasaki: The Story of an Evil Doctrine. The pamphlet argued that Protestantism 
differed little from Catholicism, and that both were evil. After reading the tract, Verbeck 
realized from the information provided that the author was an elderly Buddhist priest who 
had often come to his house to discuss matters of philosophy. In fact, two of the priest's 
students still came to see Verbeck three times a week at his home. 

As the bakufu collapsed in early 1868, Verbeck was making plans for his family to leave 
Nagasaki. In February, he wrote the Mission Board that he wanted to send his wife and two 
children (William 7 and Emma 5) back to New Brunswick, New Jersey the following year, but 
that he had no money. He also requested a leave of absence for himself, in order to travel 
to areas away from Nagasaki that might hold greater promise. He was instructed by the 
Mission Board to go to Osaka, and he did so on October 18. Except for the escape to 
China in 1863 and one visit to Hizen, he had not left Nagasaki since his arrival in 1859.

What he discovered at the newly opened foreign settlement at Osaka, was that most of its 
residents were people who had once been in Nagasaki. They had come to Osaka in search 
of greater business opportunities. He also encountered some of his former students from 
Nagasaki who were holding important positions in the new Meiji government. Osaka was 
clearly a more active city than Nagasaki, and Verbeck was besieged by both Japanese and 
foreigners alike to intercede in matters such as the dispatching of Japanese students to the 
U.S. Naval Academy, the sale of an American ironclad to Japan, and the opening of a 
government school in Tokyo.

Verbeck returned to Nagasaki, but had not been there long, when on February 13, 1869, he 
received a letter from former students who were now in the Japanese government asking 
him to go the following month to Tokyo to establish a university there. 
Verbeck quickly accepted the offer to go to Tokyo and prepared to leave Nagasaki on  
March 23. In the meantime, he readied his wife and five children (aged eight months to 
eight years) for their voyage to California and arranged to host his missionary successors in 
Nagasaki, Rev. Henry Stout and his wife Elizabeth. The Stouts arrived considerably behind 
schedule on March 10. Verbeck had written in February that if they were going to be any 
later they should go to Osaka and establish a mission there, since that city had surpassed 
Nagasaki in terms of importance. Whereas, a decade earlier Verbeck had touted Nagasaki 
as the best place for a mission, circumstances had clearly changed. Verbeck himself was 
leaving for Tokyo, and he was suggesting that his replacements be assigned to Osaka.  
Luckily, the Stouts did not receive the communication and they proceeded to Nagasaki as 
planned.

Verbeck put the Stouts up in the family quarters at Daitokuji Temple, where they witnessed 
his final hectic days in Nagasaki. Verbeck ended his ten-year stay in Nagasaki discussing 
Christianity with a Buddhist priest and then throwing his belongings in a blanket for 
transport to Tokyo. It was indeed a hurried departure, without much opportunity to reflect 
upon the impact that he had made on the town in the preceding decade. Verbeck left 
Nagasaki not with sadness, but with the hope that his ten years of preparatory work there 
had readied him for the tremendous challenges that awaited him in the capital. Besides, 
many of the people that he had come to know in Nagasaki had already moved on before him 
to the metropolitan centers of Osaka and Tokyo.

Guido Verbeck spent more than ten years in Nagasaki during the early days of the foreign 
settlement period. He and his wife were the pioneer representatives of the Reformed 
Church in Nagasaki at a time when the propagation of Christianity to Japanese was 
prohibited. Because of these circumstances, he felt that his primary task was to develop a 
trust among the Japanese, in order to lay the groundwork for the future growth of 
Christianity once the prohibitions against it were lifted. He developed this trust by taking 
the time and effort to learn about Japanese language and culture, and by helping to 
educate young Japanese about things Western. His students were primarily interested in 
English, but he also taught Dutch and German. He helped send some of the first Japanese 
students to the United States, and was particularly influential in gaining access to the U.S. 
Naval Academy for a number of young Japanese. Though his most obvious achievements 
were in the field of education, Verbeck, through English-language instruction, was able to 
begin the first Bible class in Japan and to perform some of the earliest baptisms in the 
country.

The Nagasaki that Verbeck left in 1869 was quite different than the port city that he had 
come to a decade earlier. It never lived up to the promise that many (including Verbeck) 
envisioned for it early on, and by the beginning of the Meiji period it had clearly been 
surpassed by the likes of Tokyo, Osaka and Yokohama. But Guido Verbeck left behind in 
Nagasaki a legacy of good will and quality education. He also laid the groundwork for the 
missionaries that followed in terms of churches and mission schools. 

ERNEST WALNE

Ernest N. Walne and his wife Claudia were the first members of the Southern Baptist 
Mission to arrive in Nagasaki when they moved down from Fukuoka in March 1896. Ernest 
Walne was born in Mississippi on January 20, 1867. His parents were both active members 
of the Southern Baptist Convention's missionary programs. Walne attended Mississippi 
College and Southern Baptist Seminary before moving to Ghent, Kentucky to serve as a 
pastor. There he met Claudia McCann, a graduate of the Cincinnati Conservatory of 
Music. The two were married in Nashville in May 1892. Three months later, they were off 
to Vancouver and an ocean-voyage to Japan that would land them in Yokohama on 
November 13.

The Walnes were assigned initially to Kokura, and then moved to Fukuoka in 1893, before 
coming to Nagasaki March 1896. While in Nagasaki, the Walnes resided at No. 7 
Higashiyamate. Initial successes were slow in coming, although with the assistance of the 
Japanese convert, Sugano Hanji, preaching stations were established in both Nagasaki and 
Sasebo. Ernest Walne fell ill in November 1898 and the family (including their three children) 
returned home on leave for a year.

When the Walnes returned to Nagasaki in November 1899, they moved to No. 29 Sakurababa
-machi. Ernest Walne took an active role in a series of revival meetings in 1901, but the 
Baptists still did not have a permanent site for their chapel. The situation was finally 
resolved in October 1902, when a two-story building in Katafuchi-machi was purchased with 
funds appropriated by the Board. 

Walne was also busy writing a constitution for the Southern Baptist Mission and trying to 
obtain permission from Japanese government officials for recognition of the group's legal 
status. This was finally received in December 1903, which meant that the Mission could 
finally own property in its own name, rather than having to have its Japanese members sign 
for it. 1903 was also an important year for Walne, in that he established the Gospel Book 
Store (Fukuin Shokan) in a section of the church. The store was made possible through a 
$500 donation by the Sunday School Board in Nashville.

In 1905, Walne started a monthly paper called Seiko (Starlight), with the assistance of Chiba 
Yugoro, who came down from Kyoto to serve as editor. In general, however, the year 
proved to be a difficult on for the Walnes. Claudia gave birth to a son in June, but became 
seriously ill with meningitis for six weeks; Ernest was exhausted from overwork; and another 
son, Herbert, was incapacitated for months by a fall from a tree.

In September 1906, the workload for Ernest Walne was eased somewhat with the arrival of 
three new missionary couples. After some training in the Japanese language, the couples 
were sent into the field. This caused a shuffling of positions and in 1907 the Walnes were 
transferred to Fukuoka. They were replaced in Nagasaki by John and Margaret Rowe.  
Ernest Walne remained with the Southern Baptist Mission in Japan until his retirement in 
1934, which means that he toiled for the church for forty-three years. He died on October 
31, 1936 at the age of sixty-eight in Berkeley, California. Claudia Walne passed away on 
December 6, 1948 at the age of eighty. She was survived by her four sons.

ANTHONY WALVOORD

Anthony Walvoord sailed to Nagasaki in 1905 with his young bride to teach English at a 
Reformed Church mission school in the town. Originally intending to stay only six years, he 
remained fourteen and oversaw the rapid growth of the school as its principal from 1910 
until his sudden death in 1919.

Anthony Walvoord was born in the small farming community of Cedar Grove, Wisconsin on 
March 13, 1878 to Dutch immigrant parents. His father had come to Cedar Grove from the 
Netherlands in 1849 at age fourteen and his mother arrived soon after. Their 1858 
marriage produced six children ___ Anthony being the youngest.

Upon graduation from high school, Anthony Walvoord enrolled at Hope College in Holland, 
Michigan, the major Reformed Church affiliated college in the Midwest. In addition to 
receiving a college education in Michigan, Anthony also met his future wife, Edith, there. 

After graduation from Hope in 1904, Walvoord served a year as teacher and principal of a 
Reformed Church high school in Sioux Center, Iowa. The job proved to be only temporary, 
however, as in April 1905 the Reformed Church offered him a teaching position at Steele 
Academy in Nagasaki on a special six-year contract basis. While excited about the 
prospect of going abroad, he did not want to go alone. He asked Edith Walvoord if she would 
marry him and sail to Nagasaki together. She agreed, and they were married at her home in 
Holland, Nebraska on August 3, 1905.

In order to catch their honeymoon ship to Japan, the newlyweds had to leave Nebraska by 
train four days after the wedding. They sailed for Japan on August 19th, and arrived in 
Nagasaki early on Sunday morning, September 10th.  

The Walvoords were initially housed in temporary quarters, but in October they moved into 
No. 16 Higashiyamate. This would remain the Walvoord home in Nagasaki for the duration of 
their stay. 

The situation that confronted Anthony Walvoord when he arrived at Nagasaki was a difficult 
one. The Reformed Church mission there faced stagnating student population at its schools 
and clashes among some of its missionaries.   

Albertus Pieters, who was principal of Steele Academy when Walvoord arrived, administered 
the school out of necessity, but desired to return to evangelical work in Kyushu. The school 
did not prosper under his tenure, primarily because of insufficient staffing and facilities.  
Anthony Walvoord brought needed teaching relief, and Pieters was able to turn some of his 
attention to other matters. 

Most of Walvoord's first year in Nagasaki was spent teaching English and Bible classes and 
studying the Japanese language. During this period, however, he came to be greatly 
impressed with the work done at Steele Academy in training local Japanese evangelists, and 
felt that his work as a Christian educator was of considerable importance. This belief 
prompted him in August 1906 to offer his lifelong services in educational work as a member 
of the Southern Japan Mission of the Reformed Church. Anthony Walvoord wanted to be 
more than an educator -- he wanted to be an educational missionary. In early 1907 the 
Mission Board agreed to Walvoord's request and commissioned him an educational 
missionary with the Reformed Church. From this time, Anthony Walvoord was no longer a 
short-term special contract teacher, but a permanent member of the Reformed Church 
Mission in Japan.  

The professional satisfaction achieved through his change in status must have added to the 
personal satisfaction of having become a father for the first time on December 6, 1906 with 
the birth of his daughter Geraldine. The Walvoord family was completed two and a half 
years later when twin daughters, Wilhelmina and Jeane, were born on July 9, 1909.
 
When Pieters resigned in November 1909, effective April 1910, in order to return to 
evangelistic work in Kyushu, Walvoord was named his successor as principal of Steele. Soon 
thereafter, Walvoord was authorized to conduct a four-week tour of twenty-five schools 
around Japan in order to study school organization and administration.

Upon completing his tour, Walvoord concluded that the Japanese schools were superior in 
equipment, staff and discipline. He remarked that the mission schools should either bring 
their schools up to Japanese standards or close down.

Walvoord had specific suggestions concerning Steele Academy and Sturges Seminary, which 
shared a hill with the boys' and girls' schools operated by the Methodist Church. He did not 
believe that all four Protestant schools could survive, especially in light of the increased 
competition of higher quality Japanese public schools. He suggested that Steele should 
unite with Chinzei, the neighboring Methodist boys' school, in order to make the best use of 
common resources. In addition, he thought that Sturges should be sold to the Methodists in 
exchange for the Methodist girls' school in Fukuoka. Both issues dragged on for years, but 
ultimately were settled by other means.

While not abandoning the prospect of union, Walvoord concentrated on expanding and 
improving the quality of Steele Academy. To assist him, the Mission Board allocated 
additional funds to help restore some of the older buildings. Slowly at first, then 
dramatically, enrollment at Steele began to increase, and by June 1911 Walvoord could 
proudly relate that the school had the largest number of applicants for entrance in the 
history of the school.

With most of the repairs at Steele completed and enrollments up, Walvoord took a furlough 
to the United States in 1912 to continue his studies. He entered the Master's program of 
the Divinity School at the University of Chicago, from which he received his degree in 
August 1913. 

Walvoord left once again for Japan in January 1914. Back in Nagasaki he not only resumed 
his teaching duties, but the numerous social responsibilities in which he was actively 
involved. In addition to being principal at Steele Academy, Walvoord was a director of the Y.
M.C.A. and the Seaman's Home, as well as a Sunday school teacher.  

Unlike some members of the foreign community, Anthony Walvoord also had great respect 
and admiration for the Japanese with whom he lived and worked. Among the Reformed 
Church missionaries, he above all others called for cooperation with the Nagasaki Church 
and for the necessity of a Japanese principal at Steele Academy. He was an earnest, hard-
working man who respected others and wanted the same in return. Although he went to 
Japan expecting to teach more than learn, he developed a great sense of admiration for the 
quality of Japanese schools and the ability of Japanese teachers. He also worked long and 
hard on the Japanese language, so that he could reach all of his students, not just the ones 
skilled in English. His efforts to learn the language, his dedication to hard work, and his 
willingness to cooperate with the Japanese on all levels made Anthony Walvoord one of the 
most respected figures of Christian education in Nagasaki.

From 1914 to 1917, Walvoord oversaw the construction and repair work that needed to be 
done at Steele Academy. He also instituted changes in the curriculum in an attempt to 
correct faults he perceived in Japanese education. Walvoord felt that the students had too 
many courses and spent too much time at school merely memorizing facts. He said they 
would be better served by preparing more outside of the classroom and developing their 
ability to reason.

In nine years as principal of Steele Academy, Anthony Walvoord made the school one of the 
best in southern Japan and dramatically increased student enrollment. At the age of forty-
two he seemed poised to lead the school for many years to come. This was not to be, 
however, as on the return journey to Nagasaki from the nearby summer resort of Unzen on 
September 5, 1919 he noticed a small sore above his left elbow, possibly caused by an 
insect bite.

The sore soon became infected, and on the 8th he consulted his long-time family physician 
Dr. Ikebe Eijiro. Ointments and lancing failed, however, and the infection spread to the 
whole lower arm. On the 14th the decision was made to amputate, and even though the 
operation was declared a success, his fever remained high. His condition worsened until he 
passed away on the evening of the 16th.

A funeral service was conducted for Anthony Walvoord at the Steele Academy Chapel on 
September 18. It was attended by students and teachers of Steele, the local missionary 
community, the mayor of Nagasaki, principals and teachers of the Japanese Government 
schools, the American Consul, and various foreign residents.

After one of the longest funeral processions ever seen in Nagasaki, Anthony Walvoord was 
buried at Sakamoto International Cemetery, next to the mother of an American teacher at 
Steele who had died a week earlier. A tombstone was erected for Walvoord by the 
students and teachers of Steele Academy. In the days after his burial, many came to visit 
the gravesite, and a year later a memorial service was attended by everyone at the school.  
On that occasion, the school flag was placed next to Walvoord's tomb and all the students 
and teachers filed by one by one to bow before his grave. The students also wrote a letter 
to his widow Edith at the time, which contained the following passage. 
"As you know, [Principal Walvoord] had three children, but they are all girls. He had no 
sons. If one should have questioned him whether he did not feel it hard, he would have 
replied that he was quite rich in sons, and pointed to the three hundred and fifty boys under 
his care. So dearly and to his very last, did he love his pupils and care for their present and 
future."

The letter clearly reflects how Walvoord felt about his students and how they in turn felt 
about him -- he may have had only three daughters, but he had three hundred and fifty 
sons. 

Edith Walvoord and her three children left Nagasaki for the United States on December 6, 
1919, the thirteenth birthday of the oldest daughter Geraldine. Edith later became a 
housemother at a residence hall on the campus of Hope College in Holland, Michigan.

For a number of years, former students and teachers at Steele Academy helped to keep 
the memories of Nagasaki alive through correspondence with the Walvoord family, but most 
of these threads have been severed by time. While Steele alumni members were still 
relatively young and active, however, in the years after World War Two, they rendered a 
tremendous service to the Walvoord family by restoring Anthony Walvoord's tombstone 
after it was destroyed by the atomic bomb. The effort to raise funds from alumni all over 
Japan to restore the tombstone began in 1948 under the direction of Inuzuka Isao, a former 
teacher at Steele Academy. The unveiling ceremony of Walvoord's gravestone was held on 
January 13, 1949 and was attended by many of his former students and friends. The 
restored tombstone of Anthony Walvoord remains in good, but somewhat unkempt, condition 
to this day.

The irony of the events leading up to the restoration of Walvoord's tombstone is clearly 
evident, yet unappreciated by most people. His original tombstone was destroyed by the 
terrifying bomb dropped on Nagasaki by his own countrymen, and was later replaced by 
some of his three hundred and fifty "sons" who banded together to honor the memory of 
their former teacher. As noted in the article describing the restoration of the tombstone, "
[Anthony Walvoord] loved Japanese through his life and was a true friend of Japanese." It 
was his Japanese friends who collected the money and took the time and trouble to restore 
his tombstone

RALPH WEST

Ralph E. West was born in Samsonville, Ohio on October 4, 1893. He arrived in Japan on 
September 4, 1922 as a missionary with the Methodist Episcopal Church. From 1924 to 
March 23, 1927, West taught at Chinzei in Nagasaki. While in Nagasaki, he married fellow 
Methodist missionary Pauline May on July 11, 1925. Ralph West died in Walnut Creek, 
California on November 8, 1979 at the age of eighty-seven

ANNA WHITE

Anna L. White was born in Legrand, Iowa on May 27, 1884. She arrived in Japan on 
December 2, 1911 as a missionary with the Methodist Episcopal Church. From April 1920 to 
July 15, 1937, she served as the third principal of Kwassui in Nagasaki. Anna White died in 
Pasadena, California on May 5, 1976 at the age of eighty-nine. 

CHANNING MOORE WILLIAMS

Channing Moore Williams was born in Richmond, Virginia on July 18, 1829. He was a 
graduate of the Virginia Theological Seminary (1855) and arrived Shanghai in July 1856.  
Along with John Liggins, Williams was one of the first two Protestant missionaries assigned 
to Nagasaki in 1859 in preparation for the opening of the foreign settlement here. Both 
were members of the American Episcopal Church stationed in China. Liggins, who was ill, 
was sent ahead to take advantage of Nagasaki's invigorating climate. He arrived May 2, 
1859 and was joined by Williams on June 29. They were initially housed at Kotokuin within 
Sofukuji Temple because the settlement was not yet ready for residence. Joining them at 
the Episcopal mission in Nagasaki in April 1860 was the physician E.H. Schmid. 

Liggins immediately began to teach English to Japanese interpreters, but the new Nagasaki 
bugyo proclaimed that he would not allow the teaching of Christianity. The religious duties 
of Liggins and Williams were thus limited to serving as ministers for the American and British 
residents of the foreign settlement and to leading services for visiting sailors. 

Liggins was forced to leave Japan in February 1860 due to ill health, and Schmid followed in 
November 1861 for the same reason. This left Williams as the sole representative of the 
American Episcopal Church in Japan.

C.M. Williams continued his work with the foreign community and on September 29, 1862, he 
dedicated the English Church in the foreign settlement at No. 11 Higashiyamate -- the first 
Protestant church in Japan. Williams' successes proselytizing among the Japanese were 
limited, however, as he did not make a single convert during his nearly seven-year stay.  

In the spring of 1866, the situation in Nagasaki changed dramatically, as Williams was 
recalled to the United States and appointed Bishop of China and Japan. He would later 
return to Japan and be based in Osaka, but his departure curtailed activity by the 
American Episcopal Church in Nagasaki. The Church Mission Society of the Anglican 
Church took charge of the chapel in the foreign settlement in January 1869 and later 
developed its own headquarters at Dejima, but the American Episcopal Church never 
returned to Nagasaki. C.M. Williams died at Richmond, Virginia on December 1, 1910 at the 
age of eighty-one.

CHARLES WOLFF

Charles H.H. Wolff was born in Holland, c. 1840, and later came to the United States, where 
he was ordained a minister at Auburn Seminary in 1870. The following year, he and his 
British wife Louize Buboc went to Japan as missionaries with the Dutch Reformed Church 
(later Reformed Church in America). On February 11, 1874 the Wolffs were transferred to 
Nagasaki to assist Henry Stout with the Reformed mission there. While in Nagasaki, they 
resided at No. 16 Higashiyamate. Stout and Wolff did not get along, however, with Stout 
claiming that Wolff had almost no Japanese language skills and that he was overly 
concerned with establishing an English school. Because of these differences, Wolff was 
transferred out of Nagasaki in February 1876. At this time, Wolff left the Reformed mission 
and for the next six years taught English at government schools in Japan. Charles Wolff 
died in Yokohama on August 25, 1919.