Information



 Overview
The Nagasaki Foreign Settlement, 1859-1899
 Selected Bibliography




Overview

The Ansei Five-Power Treaties, which came into effect in July 1859, ended Japan's long 
disengagement from international commercial and diplomatic networks. The treaties also 
provided for the establishment of designated settlements for foreigners in the five Japanese 
ports of Nagasaki, Kanagawa (Yokohama), Kobe, Niigata and Hakodate.

The foreign settlements subsequently served as springboards for the modernization of 
Japan. During the first years, Nagasaki played a particularly important role in that it was the 
closest port to China and a stepping stone for the introduction to Japan of everything from 
second-hand steamships to bowling balls and as a gateway for coal mining, railroads, 
newspaper publishing, shipbuilding and other technologies.

In the process, the Nagasaki foreign settlement developed its own unique style of 
administration, architecture and economic activity and provided a venue for international 
exchanges on various levels. The port also served as the setting for Madame 
Chrysanthemum, the 1888 novel by French author Pierre Loti that took nineteenth-century 
Europe by storm, deepened the cultural influence of "Japonisme" and paved the way for 
Giacomo Puccini's famous opera Madama Butterfly. 

From the outset, however, the Japanese government wanted to revise the treaties because 
of their inherent inequality: foreign residents of the settlements enjoyed the privilege of 
extraterritoriality (immunity from local laws) and unilateral authority over many aspects of 
trade, but this was certainly not the case for Japanese visiting Europe or America.

In 1894 Japan finally succeeded in negotiating the abolition of the former treaties and 
replacing them with trade pacts similar to those concluded among European countries. The 
new pacts became effective five years later in July 1899, placing Japan on an equal 
international footing with the Western powers.

As a result, the Nagasaki foreign settlement, like its counterparts in Kobe, Yokohama and 
other ports, ceased to exist as an official entity. But the great prosperity of the port 
around the turn of the century, brought on in part by the military and economic activity 
related to the Sino-Japanese War, the Spanish-American War, and the Boxer Rebellion, 
assured its continuation as an unofficial institution retaining its primarily foreign population, 
its unique social infrastructure and its quasi-Western architectural identity. 

During the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5, Nagasaki was placed under special military 
supervision because of its proximity to the theaters of war. As a result, international 
shipping came to virtual standstill, and smaller ports in Kyushu such as Kuchinotsu, Moji and 
Hakata took over a large share of the trade and coal supply business once monopolized by 
Nagasaki. The following decades witnessed a steady decline in the number of foreign 
residents, and the outbreak of World War II caused an almost complete exodus. 

After World War II, the homes, offices and hotels used by the residents of the former 
Nagasaki foreign settlement disappeared one after another under the wave of development 
and urbanization. Now only about one-tenth of the original buildings remain and memories 
have mostly faded in the old neighborhoods, but the area - and however indirectly the 
foreigners who once inhabited it - continue to contribute to the economy and culture of 
Nagasaki through its ongoing role as one of the city's most important tourist attractions.




Life and Work in the Nagasaki Foreign Settlement,
1859-1899

Contents

1.  Introduction
2.  Social Structure of the Nagasaki Foreign Settlement
  (1) Consulates
  (2) Consular Jails and Courts
  (3) Clubs and Organizations
  a) Municipal Council
  b) Nagasaki Club
  c) Freemasons Lodge
  d) Seamen's Home
  (4) Churches and Missionary Activity
  (5) Foreign-run Businesses
  (6) Stores and Factories
  (7) Medical and Dental Treatment
  (8) Foreign Language Newspapers
  (9) Entertainment and Sports
  a) Public Hall
  b) Bowling and Tennis
  c) Boat Races
  (10) Hotels and Restaurants 
  (11) Cemeteries
3.  Conclusion


1. Introduction

During Japan's more than two-century long period of national isolation (1641-1859), the 
Japanese people lived in a state of peace and self-sufficiency under the benevolent 
dictatorship of the Tokugawa Shogun and his train of feudal lords. World news trickled into 
the country via the Dutch and Chinese in Nagasaki, but the insularity of the country was 
such that the Industrial Revolution, the Napoleonic Wars and other important events were 
all but unknown to most of the nation. But by the 1830's the reports of international 
upheaval were beginning to issue from sources alarmingly close. In 1842, the Chinese were 
devastated by the British in the Opium War and forced to sign the Treaty of Nanjing, a set 
of unilateral demands including the payment of a crushing indemnity, cession of the island of 
Hong Kong, and the opening five coastal towns including Canton and Shanghai as trade 
ports with low fixed tariffs and extraterritorial rights for foreigners.

The Dutch delivered warnings to the Tokugawa Shogunate about an impending crisis, but it 
was not until July 1853, when Commodore Matthew Perry anchored a squadron of 
American warships in Tokyo Bay and demanded the opening of Japan to trade and 
diplomatic relations with the United States, that the Shogunate finally arose from its long 
hibernation. The following month, Russian Admiral Evfimii Putiatin sailed into Nagasaki 
Harbor to accomplish the same mission. Both the Americans and Russians eventually 
succeeded in winning agreements from the Shogunate, setting precedents that were 
followed by Britain, France and the Netherlands.

In 1858, the Shogunate signed full-fledged commercial treaties with the United States, 
Russia, Britain, France and the Netherlands and opened - effective July 1, 1859 - the three 
ports of Nagasaki, Yokohama and Hakodate. No warfare or outright force was involved in 
the forging of these treaties, but Japan's huge military and economic disadvantage left it 
little choice but to agree to the tariffs fixed by the foreign countries, to grant 
extraterritorial rights to foreign residents, and to allow the construction of foreign 
settlements in each treaty port. Yokohama was close to the seat of the Shogunate in Edo 
(Tokyo) and would soon grow into the largest of the foreign settlements, but in 1859 
Nagasaki was still the most important port because it had been Japan's only open window 
during the period of national isolation and because it was close to Shanghai, the point of 
departure for most of the ships making the first voyages to Japan. Soon foreigners of 
various nationalities were arriving here in droves to begin the work of building communities 
on the blueprints of the foreign settlements in China and to establish links with Japanese 
merchants, officials and agents of feudal lords.

In Nagasaki, foreign representatives conferred with Japanese authorities and selected the 
mouth of Oura Creek and its adjacent hillsides - lands belonging to the Omura feudal 
domain - as the site for the foreign settlement. In 1860, workers began to fill in the mud 
flats along the coast and to build the waterfront bund that imitated its counterpart in 
Shanghai and would go on to serve as the facade of the foreign settlement. The two 
hillsides rising away from Oura Creek were earmarked for residential districts, the one close 
to the old town named Higashiyamate ("Eastern Hillside") and the other Minamiyamate ("
Southern Hillside"). During the following months, the hillsides were carved into ledges and 
reinforced with stone embankment walls to make space for the construction of Western-
style houses, a network of stone-paved gutters was installed for drainage, and flagstone 
paths and steps were laid to provide access to individual lots. The two-phase construction 
project reached completion in early 1862, and all foreign residents of Nagasaki were ordered 
to move into the new neighborhoods by April 15, 1862. Land ownership was administered by 
a system of "perpetual leases." Issued in lieu of a title deed, the perpetual lease allowed 
foreigners to buy, sell and own property but precluded legal possession of land. For 
example, Thomas B. Glover acquired - for a yearly fee of 194 dollars - the perpetual lease 
to the hillside lot of No.3 Minamiyamate, where he built his famous residence in 1863. But 
the Glover family did not actually own the land until 1911 when Glover died and left the 
house to his son Kuraba Tomisaburo, who was a Japanese citizen.

By the middle of the Meiji Period, the Nagasaki Foreign Settlement was home to a large 
multinational community. Fine Western-style buildings of companies like Jardine Matheson 
& Co., Great Northern Telegraph, and Holme Ringer & Co. cut a gracious figure on the 
waterfront "bund," hotels, warehouses, merchant shops, newspaper offices and other 
establishments run by foreigners formed an orderly labyrinth in the rear quarters, and 
taverns and small hotels lined the banks of Oura Creek. The two hillsides, meanwhile, were 
studded with gracious colonial-style villas that displayed all the features demanded by the 
wealthy foreigners who inhabited them, such as high windows and doors, wood-strip floors 
ready for carpets, coal-burning fireplaces, spacious gardens and wide verandas commanding 
panoramic views of the harbor. The Nagasaki Foreign Settlement, in short, was like a patch 
of Liverpool or Vancouver sewn onto the waterfront of a Japanese town.


2. Social Structure of the Nagasaki Foreign Settlement

(1) Consulates

The Nagasaki British Consulate was the first foreign consulate established in Japan after 
the opening of this country's doors in 1859, and until its closure on the eve of World War II 
it served as both the most important foreign representation in Nagasaki and the socio-
political center of the Nagasaki Foreign Settlement. The first British consul, C. Pemberton 
Hodgson, arrived in Nagasaki on June 13, 1859 and, after negotiations with the Nagasaki 
bugyo Okabe Suruganokami, rented a building at Myogyoji Temple and conducted consular 
duties there until being replaced by George S. Morrison in August the same year. Morrison, 
who had served as a diplomat in China, set out regulations for British citizens in Nagasaki 
and engaged in negotiations with Japanese officials about trade guidelines and living 
conditions in the settlement. He also arranged for the construction of a permanent British 
consulate at No. 9 Higashiyamate. This building was sold and the consulate moved to No.6 
Oura in 1886. The British consulate remained here until October 1904, when it was moved 
temporarily to No. 47 Oura to allow for the construction of a new building. This building - a 
gracious two-story brick and stone building with a courtyard and dormitories for both 
British and Japanese employees at the rear - reached completion in 1908. The British 
consulate remained in operation until 1941, when the impending outbreak of war between 
Japan and Britain made conditions too dangerous for government officials to remain in 
Nagasaki. After the war the building was ceded to the City of Nagasaki and was used to 
house a science museum until 1996, when it was designated a national important cultural 
asset and reopened as an art gallery.

The United States, France, Germany, China and Russia also dispatched consuls to Nagasaki 
and established independent consulate buildings in the foreign settlement. Like the British 
Consulate, these institutions served the needs of the citizens of the respective countries 
residing in Nagasaki and engaged in exchanges on various levels with Japanese officials, 
business representatives and citizens. Although they did not have their own consulates or 
officially dispatched consuls, many other countries such as the Netherlands, Portugal, 
Belgium, Italy, Spain, Austria-Hungary, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Brazil and Hawaii either 
enlisted the British consul or prominent Nagasaki entrepreneurs like Frederick Ringer to 
serve as acting consuls.

In this way, at its peak of activity around the turn of the 20th century, the small area of 
the Nagasaki Foreign Settlement bristled with consulates of various foreign countries, like a 
miniature model of the world at large.

(2) Consular Jails and Courts

One of the most important features of the foreign settlements was that the foreigners who 
lived there were allowed the privilege of "extraterritoriality," that is, immunity from 
Japanese laws. The rationale behind this was that Japan, as a nation only recently 
inducted into the international community, was not equipped to deal with legal issues 
affecting foreigners. It was also one of the main reasons for Japan's later condemnation of 
the Ansei treaties as "unequal treaties" and its diplomatic efforts to abolish the settlements.
Foreigners may have enjoyed immunity from Japanese laws, but that did not mean that 
they were free to commit crimes. In fact, it was the consulates of the respective countries 
that served as courts for the trying of criminal and civil cases and the consul who served 
as judge. Each consulate in Nagasaki also employed constables whose responsibility it was 
to maintain peace and order, to arrest suspected criminals, and to confine them in the jail 
built in each consulate.

After the revision of the Ansei Treaties and the official abolition of the foreign settlements 
on July 17, 1899, the consular jails and courts became obsolete because foreigners now had 
to answer to Japanese laws. The first arrest of a foreigner by Japanese police occurred on 
July 21 - only four days after the inception of the new treaties - and the history-making 
person was an American sailor, seriously the worse for drink, who damaged a Nagasaki 
rickshaw, assaulted its driver when asked for compensation, and soon had the sobering 
experience of being marched off to the Japanese police station.

(3) Clubs and Organizations

  a) Municipal Council

Soon after the completion of the first phase of the foreign settlement construction project, 
the Oura, Dejima, Umegasaki, Higashiyamate and Minimiyamate neighborhoods were divided 
into lots and put up for rent, and on April 21, 1861, all the foreigners who had applied to 
rent land held a meeting at Myogyoji Temple, which was still serving as a temporary British 
consulate. The British consul George Morrison was appointed chairman. The main purpose 
of the meeting was to select a "municipal council" to supervise the administrative affairs of 
the foreign settlement. William Alt (British), John Major (British) and Franklin Field 
(American) were elected to seats on the council and submitted their first report three 
weeks later, calling for negotiations with the Japanese government and various measures to 
improve facilities and promote business in the new settlement. In 1876 the chairman of the 
Municipal Council was Thomas Glover.

The Municipal Council was later disbanded because of its redundancy with other 
organizations, but it played an important role in the early years of the foreign settlement by 
uniting residents of various backgrounds and nationalities and establishing the settlement as 
an autonomous community.

  b) Nagasaki Club

In 1861, less than two years after opening of the port, several British residents of Nagasaki 
joined to create a social organization called the "Nagasaki Club" in imitation of similar men's 
clubs in Calcutta, Shanghai and other British colonial enclaves. The club rules were laid out 
in early 1862, and a permanent building was constructed at No. 31 Oura, the former site of 
the English-language newspaper Nagasaki Shipping List and Advertiser. The first trustees 
were British merchants W.J. Alt and H.M. Wright. In 1881, the club was moved to a fine two-
story building at No.10 on the Oura Bund and continued under the supervision of British 
newspaper publisher Charles Sutton. Although a typical British institution, foreign residents 
of various nationalities as well as visitors to Nagasaki used the club as a place to relax and 
mingle with friends. The only qualification for entry seems to have been foreign nationality 
and a certain financial standing. Among the facilities were a reading room, library, bar and 
billiard room. Events such as dances and costume parties were held occasionally, especially 
to mark holidays and the departure of important residents. It was the Nagasaki Club that 
served as a model for the Nagasaki International Club formed in 1899 as a social venue for 
Japanese and foreign residents of Nagasaki. The Nagasaki Club moved to No. 4 
Minamiyamate in 1933 and closed permanently in 1941.  

Click here for a photograph of Nagasaki Club members in 1910.

  c) Masonic Lodge

The Freemasons are a fraternal order whose basic tenets are brotherly love, philanthropy 
and truth. Although frequently mistaken for a religion or secret society, Freemasonry is 
neither of these. It is probably better understood as a friendship organization, like the 
Rotary Club or Lions Club. It does, however, have a long international history. Said to have 
started in the Middle Ages as a organization of skilled stone masons involved in the 
construction of the great cathedrals of Britain, the Freemasons grew into a gathering of 
men interested in making regular, enjoyable contact with other men of good character and 
thus reinforcing their own moral development. After the organization expanded to include 
men of all occupations, the tools of the medieval stonemason - such as the rule, the 
compass and the square -- became symbols for human equality, justice, and other ideals.
The Nagasaki Masonic Lodge was inaugurated at No. 50 Oura on October 5, 1885. The 
founding members were all British, but during the following years, men of various 
nationalities and religions became members and participated in regular meetings and social 
events. The lodge moved to a new building at No. 47 Oura in June 1887. The Freemasons 
contributed to the Nagasaki community until disbanding in the early Showa Period due to a 
lack of members. Today, the graves of several former Freemasons can be found in Nagasaki'
s international cemeteries, and the stone gate of the former lodge is preserved in Glover 
Garden.

  d) Seamen's Home

At the peak of its prosperity as an international port, Nagasaki saw the visits of hundreds of 
foreign ships a year and welcomed countless numbers of foreign seamen ashore. Because 
many of these men went on drinking and gambling sprees or visited the many brothels that 
catered to them, the missionaries of the foreign settlement made efforts to establish a 
facility where seamen and other travelers could rest and engage in healthier activities while 
ashore. In 1879, Walter Andrews of the Anglican Episcopal Church rented a building at No. 
15 Oura and established a "Reading and Coffee Room" for sailors. Andrews and his 
successor A.B. Hutchinson ran this facility until June 1889, when the latter left Nagasaki to 
take up missionary work in Fukuoka. In February 1896, Protestant missionaries and a group 
of sailors on a visiting American navy vessel launched a fund-raising campaign that resulted 
in the inauguration of the "Christian Endeavor Seamen's Home" at No.26 Oura (present-
day Umegasaki Junior High School). After about 10 years, this facility had grown to such an 
extent that it had accommodations for about 90 men as well as a dining room, a large 
general room and a library. One difficulty faced in the early years was the lack of a married 
couple to manage the institution. Elizabeth Mills operated the home for the first two years, 
but it was not until October 1897 that Mr. and Mrs. John Makins were hired as permanent 
managers. Other managers who followed included Risher W. Thornberry, Mr. and Mrs. Jonus 
White, Mr. and Mrs. James Hatter and Mr. and Mrs. E.A. Clark. The Seamen's Home saw 
many ups and downs over the following years but managed to remain open until just prior to 
the outbreak of World War II.

(4) Churches and Missionary Activity

One of the problems that arose from the opening of Japan's doors and the establishment of 
foreign settlements was the fact that, while the ban on Christianity enforced by the 
Tokugawa Shogunate since the early seventeenth century was still firmly in place, the 
foreigners taking up residence here naturally wanted to build churches and to conduct 
religious services. In view of the extraterritorial rights granted foreigners, the Shogunate 
had little choice but to permit the construction of churches within the confines of the 
settlements, but it strictly outlawed any attempt to win Japanese converts and only 
stepped up its efforts to suppress the religion in the local community.

The first Catholic church to appear in the Nagasaki Foreign Settlement was Oura Cathedral 
at No.1a Minamiyamate, a quasi-gothic structure built by Japanese carpenters under 
orders from French priests of the Paris Foreign Mission Society and completed in February 
1865. It was at the door of this church - only weeks later on March 17 - that a group of 
peasants from Urakami village approached Fr. Bernard Petitjean and informed him that they 
shared his belief in "Santa Maria." This event marked the discovery of the "underground 
Christians," whose ancestors had sought refuge from persecution in remote islands and 
villages in the early seventeenth century and who had kept their religion alive for two 
centuries despite complete isolation from the Church. Petitjean and the other French 
priests defied the law and made surreptitious visits to Urakami and other villages where 
Japanese Christians were hiding. But the authorities learned of the existence of the 
underground groups and in the latter part of the decade took the drastic measure of exiling 
the entire population of Urakami to other parts of Japan.

In 1876, when the Vicariate Apostolic of Japan was divided into Northern and Southern 
Apostolic Vicariates, Nagasaki became part of the Southern Vicariate Apostolic, which had 
jurisdiction over the Kyushu, Chugoku, and Kinki regions. Ten years later, the Nagasaki 
mission was staffed by 16 French priests from the Paris Foreign Mission society, including 
Fr. Marco de Rotz, who was revered for his efforts to help the Catholic faithful in the poor 
villages of Sotome.

Catholic nuns also played an important role in the religious life of the foreign settlement. 
Answering a plea from the French missionary Bernard Petitjean for a contingent of sisters 
to come and serve in Japan, Sister Mathilde and four other members of the order Soeurs 
de l'Enfant Jesus moved their mission to Japan in June 1872. The first group of French 
sisters arrived in Nagasaki on July 6, 1877. In 1880, they opened a school called Seishin Jo 
Gakko (Sacred Heart Girls School) in Minamiyamate. By 1886, the school had been 
transferred to No. 5 Oura, where it remained until 1899 when it was established in a fine 
new building at No.16 Minamiyamate. This school welcomed the daughters of both foreign 
and Japanese families and soon grew into a Nagasaki landmark.  

The foremost Catholic school for boys in the Nagasaki Foreign Settlement was Kaisei 
Gakko, founded by French Marianist brothers in 1892. The school purchased land on the 
Higashiyamate hillside and in 1898 began classes in a grand four-story brick building 
commanding a panoramic view over Nagasaki Harbor. A group photograph taken around the 
turn of the century shows how the school accepted pupils of various nationalities, races and 
religious backgrounds, just like the city in which it was located. 

The Protestant denominations also established churches and schools in the Nagasaki 
Foreign Settlement. The American Episcopal Church, which had a station in China, sent two 
missionaries to Nagasaki prior to the official opening of the port in 1859, and one of these, C.
M. Williams, constructed Japan's first Protestant church at No.11 Higashiyamate in October 
1862. After the abolition of the ban on Christianity in 1873, Henry Stout, a missionary of 
the Reformed Church in America serving as an English instructor at the government school, 
started bible classes for Japanese students in his home at No.14 Higashiyamate and, with 
his wife Elizabeth, opened mission schools for young men and women that would grow into 
Tozan Gakuin and Umegasaki Jogakko, respectively. Eliza Goodall, the widow of an Anglican 
military chaplain, started classes in English and dressmaking for girls in her house at No.3 
Higashiyamate and thus laid the foundation for Nagasaki Jogakko (Girls' School). The No.3 
Higashiyamate lot had originally been rented by Guido Verbeck, the pioneer American 
missionary and educator who worked at the government school in Nagasaki. Another 
notable American missionary is John C. Davison, a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church who came to Nagasaki in 1873, helped to establish a Protestant church at Deshima 
in 1876 and arranged through the American Board of Foreign Missions for the dispatch of 
ministers to found Methodist mission schools in Nagasaki. As a result of his efforts, Kwassui 
Jogakko (for young women) and Chinzei Gakuin (for young men) were established on the 
Higashiyamate hillside in 1879 and 1881, respectively, and went on to make important 
contributions to education in Japan. The "Nagasaki Directory" and other records for the 
period around 1897 show that, of the 17 lots in the Higashiyamate district, 13 were occupied 
either by the Protestant mission schools named above or by the homes of missionaries and 
teachers working there. It is no wonder that Higashiyamate was also known among foreign 
residents and visitors as "Missionary Hill."

The Russian residents of Nagasaki joined together in 1883 to found a Russian Orthodox 
Church near the Russian Consulate at No.5 Minamiyamate. Just as the consulate served 
their political needs, the church served the religious needs of the Russian community of 
Nagasaki until both were closed in 1932. Today, the Russian Orthodox chapel in the Russian 
Cemetery at Goshinji Temple is a reminder of the religion's former presence in Nagasaki.

Although Nagasaki's early Catholic and Protestant churches have gained far more attention, 
the Nagasaki Foreign Settlement was also the site of Japan's first Jewish synagogue.  
Jewish people began to arrive in Nagasaki from the 1860's, most establishing hotels, bars 
and stores on the back streets of the settlement. Although united by their religion, these 
people hailed from various countries including Russia, Austria, Romania and Turkey, and 
many arrived in Nagasaki after moving around various international ports searching for 
financial security and freedom from prejudice. Their numbers increased in proportion to 
Nagasaki's prosperity as a trade port, and in September 1896 they joined together to 
establish the Beth Israel Synagogue at No. 11 Umegasaki. The leaders in this endeavor 
were the prominent Jewish entrepreneurs Haskel Goldenberg and Sigmund Lessner. This 
synagogue continued to serve the Jewish community of Nagasaki until the building and 
property were sold in 1924, a point in time that coincides with the departure of the last 
Nagasaki Jewish residents. Today, nothing remains of the former synagogue, but the large 
number of Jewish graves in the international cemeteries speaks silently of the contributions 
made by the former Jewish community to Nagasaki.

(5) Foreign-run Businesses

Even before the official opening of Nagasaki to foreign trade on July 1, 1859, foreign 
merchants entered the port and began to establish contact with the representatives of 
various han (feudal clans) of southwestern Japan. Since land had still not been procured 
for the foreign settlement, these merchants rented rooms in houses and temples in the 
Japanese town. After the construction of the foreign settlement, the Oura neighborhood 
became home to dozens of trading companies, ship chandlers, shipping agencies, auction 
houses and other businesses run by foreigners. And just as they lay closer than any other 
Nagasaki neighborhood to the mouth of Nagasaki Harbor, the settlement and its cluster of 
foreign businesses sat at the vanguard of Japan's push for globalization during the vibrant 
years of the Meiji Period.

One of the earliest merchants to begin operations in Nagasaki was William J. Alt. Alt arrived 
in Nagasaki on October 27, 1859 and opened a general commission agency called Alt & Co.  
After establishing business links with a number of feudal clans, the young Englishman made a 
quick fortune trading in tea, marine products, ships and weapons. One of his foremost 
contacts was Iwasaki Yataro, a young representative of the Tosa Clan who had been 
stationed in Nagasaki to negotiate trade deals and who would go on later, with Alt's help, to 
found the Mitsubishi Co. Alt & Co. had offices on the waterfront at No. 7 Oura and also 
operated tea-firing warehouses No. 18, 19 and 20 Oura, where tea from the neighboring 
countryside was dried by hundreds of Japanese laborers working on rotating shifts 24 hours 
a day. Alt built his private residence at No.14 Minamiyamate, a choice spot on the hillside 
overlooking Nagasaki harbor.

Another prominent merchant in the early days of the settlement was Kenneth R. 
Mackenzie, who came here as a representative of Jardine, Matheson & Co. A skilled trader 
with years of experience in the Far East, Mackenzie rented a Japanese building at Myogyoji 
Temple and, when a French Consulate was opened there, served as the first French consul.  
After the construction of the foreign settlement, he also rented No.15 Oura and served as a 
local agent for the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co. In addition to his business 
and consular duties, Mackenzie also organized the first fire brigade in the foreign settlement 
in 1860.

When Kenneth R. Mackenzie left Nagasaki in June 1861, he gave the reins of the Nagasaki 
branch of Jardine, Matheson & Co. to a young fellow Scotsman named Thomas B. Glover, 
who had been working as a clerk in the office since the autumn of 1859. Glover established 
his own company (Glover & Co.) in 1862 and over the next few years made a fortune selling 
steamships, guns and other merchandise to the clans of southwestern Japan. He also 
introduced various modern technologies to Japan and arranged for both the import of 
related machines and facilities and the employment of British engineers to serve as 
advisors. His achievements not only facilitated Japan's efforts at modernization but also 
contributed enormously to the development of the Nagasaki Foreign Settlement. In 1863, 
Glover arranged with the Japanese master carpenter Koyama Hidenoshin to build a house 
on the Minamiyamate hillside. This building, which was designed for use by foreigners but 
built by Japanese hands using Japanese materials, symbolized the earliest meeting of 
European and Japanese culture in a new age of globalization. In 1870, Glover's Nagasaki 
trading firm Glover & Co. went bankrupt as a result of debts incurred around the time of 
the Meiji Restoration, but the Scotsman stayed in Japan and became involved with 
expanding Japanese industries.

However successful, the companies established by Alt, Mackenzie and Glover were all short-
lived. But Holme, Ringer & Co., established in 1868 by Glover & Co. employee Frederick 
Ringer, became a Nagasaki institution and stayed in business here until being forced to close 
on the eve of World War II. From its office at No.7 on the Oura Bund, the company 
unfolded a dazzling array of business activities. Starting out as a importer-exporter dealing 
in tea, coal, marine products, vegetable wax and tobacco, it later expanded into a banking, 
insurance and shipping agency with branch offices in China, Korea and several other 
Japanese ports. The company also operated a flourmill, steam laundry, tanning factory, gas 
supplier, power station, stevedore business, trawler fishing company and whaling company.  
At the peak of activity in the foreign settlement, Ringer also launched a daily English 
language newspaper, the Nagasaki Press, and led a group of investors in the construction of 
the grand "Nagasaki Hotel" on the waterfront in 1898. Although historians have paid him 
much less attention than his former employer Thomas Glover, Frederick Ringer made 
tremendous contributions, not only to the development of the foreign settlement and the 
economic prosperity of Nagasaki, but also to the cultivation of a new generation of 
Japanese enterprises that emulated the Western-style business practices of Holme, Ringer 
& Co. and borrowed from its international expertise.

Other foreign enterprises that appeared and thrived in Nagasaki are Major & Co., M.C. 
Adams & Co., N. Mess & Co., R.H Powers & Co. and R.N. Walker & Co. The hundreds of 
foreigners who worked for these companies over the years lived on the Higashiyamate and 
Minamiyamate hillsides or in rooms rented in hotels and buildings in the Oura district, many 
staying here for decades or finding an unexpected permanent home in the international 
cemeteries of Nagasaki. 

(6) Stores and Factories

Separated from the Japanese town politically, geographically and culturally, the Nagasaki 
Foreign Settlement by nature had to maintain a high level of self-determination and self-
sufficiency. At every year of its existence - and particularly during the peak years around 
the turn of the 20th century - a cross section of the settlement reveals Europeans, 
Americans and Chinese at virtually every social station from diplomat and doctor to barber, 
undertaker and store clerk. Since the foreign residents naturally chose a lifestyle similar to 
that in their own home countries - and many necessities were unavailable in Japan - the 
supply of foreign furniture, clothing, accessories, foodstuffs and various other items became 
an important industry in the settlement and led to the development of an urban business 
core similar to that in European and American cities and in the older colonial enclaves of 
East Asia.

With regard to foods and drinks, slaughterhouses were established in the Naminohira 
waterfront area (at the southern edge of the settlement) soon after the establishment of 
the foreign settlement and provided a steady supply of meat. Since the Japanese people of 
the time did not drink milk, a dairy was also founded to provide fresh milk and other 
products. One of the foreigners who made a living in the dairy business was G. Napalkov, a 
Russian entrepreneur whose shop was located at No.36 Oura (on the southern bank of Oura 
Creek).

Another food in constant demand but unavailable in the Japanese town was bread. In the 
early part of the Meiji Period, a French entrepreneur named Charles Thomas opened a 
bakery and French provisions store at No.42a Oura. After his death in 1877, a Canadian of 
French descent named Jean Couder took over the bakery and later re-opened it along with 
a French restaurant at No.22 Oura. Although the proprietor later changed, this bakery 
remained in business throughout the years of the foreign settlement.

Soft drinks such as lemonade, ginger ale and soda water were also produced by foreign 
entrepreneurs and supplied to the residents of the settlement on a regular basis. One of 
the principal producers was an establishment called the "Medical Hall," which, as the name 
indicates, also served as an outlet for various imported drugs and medical supplies.  
Launched in the 1860's by an Englishman named James Gye and located at No.12 Oura 
(later No.11 Oura), the Medical Hall changed proprietors several times but served the 
foreign residents of Nagasaki throughout the settlement years. The final proprietor, William 
H. Evans, sold the establishment and its soft drink factory in September 1904. Historical 
records indicate that the equipment was purchased by R.N. Walker and given a new life at 
the "Banzai Aerated Water Factory" that he established in his warehouse at No.44a Oura 
in December the same year.

Some of the other shops that vied for customer attention in the streets and alleys of the 
Nagasaki Foreign Settlement - and made visitors feel like they were our for a walk in 
Brighton or San Francisco - were the "Eureka Shaving Salon," "Mrs. Fullerton's Millinery 
Shop," "G. Lodurqvist, Shoemaker," "N. Stibolt & Co., Shipwrights & Carpenters," "P. 
Bernardi, Wines & General Stores Merchant," "D.F. Jacobs, Cabinet-maker," "Sigmund 
Lessner, Fancy Goods and Auctioneer," "Nagasaki Steam Laundry, J. Nicholson," "Chang 
Fong, tailor.," and "Saphiere & Co., Bicycle and Machines."

(7) Medical and Dental Treatment

During the early years of the Nagasaki Foreign Settlement, foreigners who suffered injuries 
or came down with illnesses had very few choices with regard to medical treatment: they 
could either visit the government-run hospital supervised by a Dutch physician but staffed 
mostly by Japanese students with more potential than expertise, or they could wait for the 
visit of one of the foreign physicians who traveled around the ports of the Far East. The 
naval vessels calling regularly at Nagasaki invariably carried surgeons and physicians, but 
these men naturally placed priority on the crews under their care.

As the settlement developed, however, the navies of the United States, Russia and other 
countries built hospitals here for sailors who required intensive medical care. Also, foreign 
physicians began to settle in Nagasaki for extended periods and to attend to the needs of 
foreign residents, while at the same time often making medical and educational contributions 
to the Japanese community as well. British physician Charles A. Arnold came to Nagasaki 
in 1886 and opened a private practice in the Oura neighborhood. He also accepted a post 
as lecturer in the government-run hospital and earned the respect of both the Japanese 
and foreign communities. Dr. Edward Amuat, a native of Switzerland and naturalized 
American citizen, came to Nagasaki in 1889 to serve as director of the government-run 
hospital, and in addition to his duties there he opened a private practice for foreign 
residents in his home at No.11 Higashiyamate. Dr. Mary Suganuma, an American physician 
married to a Japanese man, came to Nagasaki in 1893 and opened (with financial assistance 
from the Methodist Church) a hospital in Junin-machi where she treated both Japanese 
and foreign patients.

Still another notable foreign physician who served the foreign and Japanese communities of 
Nagasaki was Robert I. Bowie, an American navy physician who came to Nagasaki in 1897 
and stayed on after being appointed acting assistant surgeon of the U.S. Public Health and 
Marine Hospital Service at Nagasaki. Robert Bowie opened a clinic beside his residence at 
No. 23 and No.24 Oura in January 1898. At the same time, he founded a Catholic hospital 
called St. Bernard Hospital in Kosuge-machi for the treatment of foreign residents and 
visitors. The hospital was situated on land owned by Les Soeurs de l'Enfant Jesus and was 
staffed by the French sisters. Robert Bowie died of kidney failure on April 24, 1911 at the 
age of 54. St. Bernard Hospital closed the following year, but the Bowie residence and clinic 
in Oura were purchased by a Japanese physician and later re-opened as "Aoki Hospital."

(8) Foreign Language Newspapers

Launched on June 22, 1861 by British auctioneer Albert Hansard, the "Nagasaki Shipping 
List and Advertiser" was the first modern newspaper published in Japan. As the name 
indicates, it was primarily a vehicle for shipping information and advertisements. The fact 
that more than half of the advertisements were placed by businesses in Shanghai shows 
how, especially in its early years, the Nagasaki Foreign Settlement was like a satellite to its 
larger and older counterpart in China. The newspaper also reported on various local events, 
such as the launching of the "Phantom" - Japan's first yacht and first locally constructed 
Western-style ship - by Scottish carpenter James Mitchell. It was published twice weekly 
until October I the same year when Hansard moved his printing press to Yokohama and 
established the Japan Herald. 

The next English newspaper, the "Nagasaki Times," appeared in 1868 but lasted only a year. 
It was followed by the Nagasaki Shipping List, which also stayed in print for only a few 
months. It was the founding of the "Nagasaki Express" on January 15, 1870 that marked 
the beginning of an unbroken series of English newspapers that served the foreign 
community of Nagasaki until 1928. The editor was the Portuguese Filomeno Braga, who had 
been involved earlier in a newspaper in Kobe. The "Nagasaki Express" carried shipping 
information, business and banking reports, church notices, letters to the editor and articles 
on local events. It reported, for example, on the laying of the first telegraph cables linking 
Japan with the outside world (Nagasaki-Shanghai) in 1871, and published the first 
advertisement for telegrams. It also publicly criticized the Japanese government for 
dispersing some 3,000 Nagasaki Christians to other parts of the country in 1870 and in that 
way played a role in the lifting of the national ban on Christianity in 1873. 
With the growth of the Nagasaki Foreign Settlement, other English-language newspapers 
such as the "Nagasaki Gazette," the "Nagasaki Shipping List" and the "Rising Sun" 
appeared. The first two newspapers soon folded, and in May 1874 the Rising Sun and the 
Nagasaki Express merged into a new newspaper called the "Rising Sun and Nagasaki Express.
" This newspaper was also a weekly. It served the foreign community for more than two 
subsequent decades until its 956th, and final, issue rolled off the presses in September 
1897.  

During the interval between 1894 and 1897, when international business activity soared in 
Nagasaki, four other English newspapers circulated: the "Cosmopolitan Press," "Kiushu 
Times," "Nagasaki Observer" and the third incarnation of the "Nagasaki Shipping List."  
Thus, around the time of the Sino-Japanese War, there were no fewer than five English-
language newspapers competing for attention in the tiny but prosperous Nagasaki Foreign 
Settlement.  

Frederick Ringer, president of the British firm Holme Ringer & Co. and the most influential 
foreign businessman in Nagasaki, bought both the "Rising Sun and Nagasaki Express" and 
the "Nagasaki Shipping List" and amalgamated these into a new daily newspaper called the "
Nagasaki Press," the first issue of which appeared on September 6, 1897. Unlike its 
predecessors, the "Nagasaki Press" focused mainly on international news delivered by wire 
service and therefore lacked detailed information about local culture and events. Ringer 
tried to correct this shortfall in September 1904 by launching a 12-page illustrated monthly 
called "Cherry Blossoms," which carried interesting articles about the history and culture of 
Nagasaki and about nearby points of interest. "Cherry Blossoms" ceased publication in 
1908 after 37 issues. 

The most famous of the Nagasaki editors was Wilmot Lewis, who married Frederick Ringer's 
daughter Jessie. After leaving Nagasaki he won acclaim as a war correspondent in the 
Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). Later he was on the staff of the "Times" (London) and 
was knighted for his achievements as Washington correspondent during World War I. 

The "Nagasaki Press" continued its daily publication until July 31, 1928 (9,118 issues in all), 
when the dwindling foreign population of Nagasaki and the global economic depression forced 
the editors to close down the city's last English newspaper. Most of the English-language 
newspapers published in Nagasaki are preserved today at the Nagasaki Prefectural Library 
and remain as an invaluable source of information about the former foreign settlement, 
about the activities of its inhabitants, and about the interaction of the Japanese and foreign 
communities of Nagasaki during the Meiji, Taisho and early Showa Period.

Another lesser-known foreign language newspaper is the "Volya," a Russian newspaper 
published in Nagasaki from 1906 to 1907. After the humiliating defeat of Russia in the Russo
-Japanese War of 1904-05, a band of Russian expatriates led by a political activist and 
former medical doctor named Nikolai Russell made Nagasaki a base for their activities, 
stirring up anti-czarist feelings among prisoners-of-war here and distributing populist 
literature on ships carrying the soldiers home. In April 1906, the band founded a Russian-
language newspaper called Volya ("Will") in the Nagasaki Foreign Settlement, using this as a 
vehicle for the propagation of populist philosophy. Working from the safe oasis of Nagasaki, 
the zealots were able to communicate ideas to a wide readership in the ports of Japan and 
China. In March 1907, they moved their base of activity back onto the continent, and the "
Volya" ceased publication after less than a year in print.

(9) Entertainment and Sports

a) Public Hall

Although they enjoyed the privilege of extraterritoriality and were free to lead a lifestyle of 
their own design, the foreign residents of Nagasaki were confined, just like the Dutch on 
Dejima, to the relatively small space of the foreign settlement. During the early years when 
restrictions were particularly tight, they sought permission from Japanese authorities to 
hold picnics at Nezumijima, to make excursions on horseback to the surrounding 
countryside, and to travel to the hot springs at Obama and Unzen for "therapeutic" 
reasons. They also quickly developed a variety of recreational activities within the 
settlement and participated in these above the barriers of religion and nationality. These 
activities marked the introduction to Japan of various Western games and sports.

One of the first recreational facilities was a building, open to the public, to accommodate 
theatrical and musical performances. This was soon nicknamed the "Olympic Theatre," and 
a group of foreign residents gathered to form an acting troupe called the "Nagasaki 
Amateur Dramatic Corps." In the mid-1870s, the new "Public Hall and Theatre" was 
erected at No. 31 Oura, the lot used previously by the Municipal Council. Over the years, 
this stage saw a wide variety of events such as musical recitals by violinist Kitty Walker 
(daughter of R.N. Walker) and other local musicians, magic shows by traveling entertainers 
like Madame Cora and Annie May Abbott, plays by the crew of the U.S. cruiser New 
Orleans, concerts by the orchestra from the Italian cruiser Marco Polo and the Russian 
String Quartet; and dances held to welcome the crews of visiting warships. The Public Hall 
also hosted a number of charity concerts. In February 1905, a band from the 9th US 
Infantry performed here, and the proceeds were donated to a fund for Japanese sick and 
wounded in the Russo-Japanese War. The following February, a benefit was held for famine 
relief victims in northeastern Japan. In December 1923, the Public Hall fell into such severe 
financial difficulty that the trustees decided to sell the buildings and land to Nagasaki 
Kyokai. This event marked not only the end of the Public Hall but also another step in the 
disintegration of the former Nagasaki Foreign Settlement after World War I. Nagasaki 
Kyokai removed the old building and erected a new church building on the site in October 
1925. This building still stands today.

b) Bowling and Tennis

The foreign residents also entertained themselves with billiards, badminton, croquet and 
other games. One of the earliest forms of indoor recreation introduced after the opening of 
the port was bowling. In the June 22, 1861 issue of the Nagasaki Shipping List and 
Advertiser, a small advertisement announces the opening of the "International Bowling 
Saloon" on Hirobaba Street in the settlement, Japan's first bowling lane. After this, bowling 
lanes became a standard feature in many of the hotels constructed in the settlement. The 
sport in fact became so popular that the "Nagasaki Bowling Club" was later established at 
No.10A Minamiyamate and served for many years as a social institution for residents of all 
ages and nationalities.

Another sport that gained popularity in the foreign settlement was tennis. Because of the 
spacious dimensions of the lots in Minamiyamate, the foreigners residing here - among them 
Thomas Glover and Nathan Mess - were able to build tennis courts near their homes and to 
use these, not only for tennis matches, but also for outdoor concerts, luncheons, wedding 
parties, and other social gatherings. A group of foreign wives even gathered to form the "
Ladies Lawn Tennis Club." Today the tennis courts are gone, but the heavy stone grass 
roller left beside one of the pathways in Glover Garden serves as a reminder of their former 
presence here. 

c) Boat Races

Still another athletic activity pursued by the foreign residents of Nagasaki throughout the 
foreign settlement period was boat racing in Nagasaki Harbor, the calmness of which 
provided an ideal environment for this traditional British sport. Every year in spring, the 
foreign residents gathered along with the crews of visiting ships for a day-long regatta, 
forming teams that participated in various events and vied for cash prizes and a 
championship cup. The Nagasaki Racing and Athletic Committee, which oversaw these 
events, built a Western-style boat house on the shore at Naminohira where spectators 
could watch the races from a wide second-floor veranda. At the "Nagasaki Regatta" of 
April 26, 1871, which was reported in detail in the Nagasaki Express, the program included 
races for yachts over seven tons, sailing boats, ships' cutters and canoes. In the canoe 
race, a 32 year-old Thomas Glover came in second and so was unfortunately unable to 
collect the $10 prize. 

(10) Western-style Hotels

Western-style hotels were among the first buildings erected in the Nagasaki Foreign 
Settlement after the opening of the country's doors in 1859. The first mention of a "hotel" 
in records related to the foreign settlement is an advertisement for the Commercial Hotel 
carried in the July 10, 1861 issue of the English-language newspaper The Nagasaki Shipping 
List and Advertiser. The location of this establishment is unclear, but it was probably a 
refurbished Japanese building in the Hirobaba neighborhood. The content of the 
advertisement suggests that it was more of a tavern and bowling alley than a place for 
lodging. 

During the allotment of foreign settlement property carried out by the consular body in 
October 1860, two Americans residents -- Caroline Weeks and Nathaniel Simmons - 
acquired the leases to Oura Nos.25 and 26, respectively. Both would soon erect Western-
style hotels on these lots, namely, the "Commercial House" and the "Oriental Hotel."
The 1865 issue of the "Japan Directory" shows the existence of three hotels in the 
Nagasaki Foreign Settlement: the "Commercial House" still run by Caroline Weeks, the "
Oriental Hotel" transferred to M. Broderick, and the "Bellevue Hotel" run by Mary Green, 
wife of the former British consulate constable.  

The word "hotel" was soon also being used by a large number of low-class taverns, many of 
them located along the banks of Oura River. These taverns, which catered primarily to 
foreign sailors, earned a bad reputation as hotbeds for drunkenness, brawls and illegal 
prostitution. In the spring of 1883, British Minister Sir Harry Parkes asked the acting consul 
in Nagasaki, John C. Hall, to conduct a thorough investigation because the British naval 
authorities had filed a complaint about the prevalence of venereal diseases in the Nagasaki 
Foreign Settlement. In a later report, Hall lists 22 foreign-run public houses in the 
settlement and states that, "of this number only five are hotels at which board and lodging 
for travelers is procurable, and of this five only two are fit for respectable people to stop 
at. The other 20 houses therefore consist of three low class hotels so-called and 
seventeen grog shops or taverns." The only two establishments deemed "respectable" by 
Hall were the Bellevue Hotel and the International Hotel (opened at No.6 Umegasaki in 1872).

After the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-5, however, Nagasaki saw a dramatic increase in the 
visits of large passenger liners plying the ocean routes linking Hong Kong and Shanghai with 
Vancouver, San Francisco and other ports on the North American west coast. The city 
also gained fame as Kyushu's main international trade port, as an exotic sightseeing spot, 
and as a gateway to the summer resort of Unzen, and the wealthy foreign travelers who 
disembarked here created a demand for a finer class of hotel.

As a result, several grand Western-style hotels appeared in the Oura neighborhood during 
the closing years of the 19th century. These included the Japan Hotel at No.25 Oura (site 
of the former Commercial House), the Hotel de France at No.33 Oura, and the Cliff House 
Hotel at No.10 Minamiyamate.  

The most imposing of the hotels built during Nagasaki's golden age as an international port 
was undoubtedly the Nagasaki Hotel, a three-story brick and stone building erected on the 
Sagarimatsu (present-day Matsugae-machi) waterfront in 1897 by a group of foreign 
investors led by Frederick Ringer. The Nagasaki Hotel boasted a panoramic view of the 
harbor, telephones in every room, private electric plant, expensive European furnishings, 
appliances and tableware, richly stocked wine cellar, hairdressing salon and French chefs.
However, Nagasaki fortunes as an international port declined after the Russo-Japanese War 
and one hotel after another closed in the former foreign settlement. The Hotel de France 
succumbed in 1909 and the Cliff House Hotel in 1918. The Bellevue Hotel, the oldest 
Western-style hotel in Nagasaki, closed in 1920.  

Meanwhile, the company running the Nagasaki Hotel declared bankruptcy in 1904. Holme, 
Ringer & Co. took over and revived the hotel, but it closed down again in 1908 and remained 
empty until 1918 when Japanese merchant Mori Arayoshi (Xrg) assumed management.  
However, the hotel faltered again and was closed permanently in 1924.

The Japan Hotel met an unexpected demise in December 1937, burning to the ground in an 
accidental fire. A few smaller hotels, including the Golden Eagle Hotel, Europe Hotel and 
Kaida Hotel, remained functioning in the former foreign settlement, but all of them were 
gone by the end of World War Two.

(11) Cemeteries

During the Edo Period, Goshinji Temple in the Inasa district (the side of Nagasaki Harbor 
opposite the main town) was the site of cemeteries for the Dutch and Chinese, who were 
the only foreigners allowed a foothold in Japan during the period of national isolation. In 
1858, a Russian Naval Cemetery was opened beside the Dutch Cemetery for the burial of 
several seamen on the Russian frigate "Askold" who died during an outbreak of cholera.  
After the opening of the port in 1859 and the establishment of the foreign settlement, 
another cemetery was established at Goshinji to accommodate foreign graves, but this soon 
proved too small and also inconvenient for the foreign community clustered on the other 
side of the harbor. 

In 1861 the British consul spearheaded negotiations with the Japanese authorities for the 
establishment of an international cemetery closer to the foreign settlement. The Japanese 
complied, and a new cemetery was opened in present-day Kawakami-machi. Referred to 
today as Oura International Cemetery, this cemetery contains 283 graves arranged in 13 
rows on five levels. The earliest legible tombstone is dated June 21, 1861, but many of the 
other stones have eroded or disappeared over the years. Oura International Cemetery 
served the foreign community until becoming virtually full in the late 1880's. In 1888, a large 
new foreign cemetery was opened at Urakami Yamazato (present-day Sakamoto-machi) 
and served the foreign residents of Nagasaki until after World War II. Today, Sakamoto 
International Cemetery and its adjacent addition contain about 440 graves where people of 
at least 16 nationalities lie in eternal rest.

(Click here for an illustrated essay on the international cemeteries of Nagasaki.) 

3. Conclusion

In July 1894 the Japanese ambassador to Britain, Aoki Shuzo, succeeded in negotiations 
with his British counterparts to revise the Anglo-Japanese treaty in force since 1858.  
Signed in London on July 16, 1894 and effective as of July 17, 1899, the new "Anglo-
Japanese Commercial Treaty" called for an end to extraterritoriality and a restoration of 
Japan's right to autonomy in customs tariffs. Britain agreed on the condition that Japan 
guarantee the rights of British entrepreneurs to travel, live and do business anywhere they 
wanted in Japan. The United States, France and other countries soon emulated Britain and 
agreed to treaty revisions. The momentous change in Japan's relationship with the world 
and in the status of foreigners living in this country arrived on July 17, 1899. At the top of 
its editorial page, the Nagasaki Press gushed that:

"Today, the 17th of July, marks an epoch in the history of Japan, a country that has 
already surprised the Occident by its wonderful adaptation in so short a time to the modern 
civilization of the Western world. After years of patient toiling on the part of her able 
statesmen, Japan today enters upon an equal footing with all the Powers, and now holds the 
proud distinction of being the first Oriental nation to exercise jurisdiction over Occidentals.  
The old Treaties have ceased to exist, and there is reason to believe that under the new 
order of things foreigners resident in this country, and those who come after, will have little 
to fear from the change."

The end of extraterritoriality and the abolition of the foreign settlements was in fact a soft 
landing, mainly because Nagasaki was enjoying an unprecedented economic boom that 
issued directly from the visits of foreign ships to its harbor. Thus, although legally abolished, 
the Nagasaki Foreign Settlement persisted as an unofficial institution retaining its primarily 
foreign population, its unique social infrastructure and its quasi-Western architectural 
identity. And for the foreigners who lived there, the settlement continued to provide a safe 
gray zone neither really in Japan nor out.

For the first few years after the turn of the century, Nagasaki continued to prosper as a 
trade port, coaling station and shipbuilding center, but as soon as war broke out between 
Japan and Russia in February 1904, the Japanese government imposed martial law on the 
city because of its proximity to the theater of war, and military forces established 
checkpoints at key locations, laid mines at the entrance to the harbor and monitored all 
maritime traffic. In the ensuing months the city fell into a deep economic slump as a result 
of the suspension of commercial shipping. Companies run by Russians or involved in 
business with Russia, such as M. Ginsburg & Co., N. Mess & Co. and the Russo-Chinese 
Bank, closed their Nagasaki offices or transferred their agencies to British firms. Hotel 
rooms, restaurant tables and bar counters in the former foreign settlement meanwhile lay 
vacant.

In the years after the Russo-Japanese War, Nagasaki saw a few spurts of activity but 
never fully regained its former vitality as an international port. The foreigners living in the 
former foreign settlement gradually departed, selling their homes in Minamiyamate and 
Higashiyamate to Japanese buyers and casting their offices and stores in Oura to the winds 
of fate.

After World War II, the former foreign settlement was little more than an empty shell, and 
few of the Japanese inhabitants of the old buildings had any interest in its history or the 
stories of the people who once lived there. The demolition of historic buildings and their 
replacement with modern structures continued unchecked, and by the end of the 20th 
century less than one tenth of the buildings of the former foreign settlement remained.
But when the dust is swept away and the forgotten stories of the Nagasaki Foreign 
Settlement are recalled, researchers will find a unique period in Japanese history when a 
few foreigners of various nationalities and religions lived in peaceful cooperation with their 
Japanese neighbors and made important contributions to the modernization of Japan and 
to the industrial, educational, and cultural development of Nagasaki.




Selected Bibliography of Western-Language Sources on the
Nagasaki Foreign Settlement


D'Aguilar, Anna. A Lady's Visit to Manila and Japan. London: Hurst and Blackett, 1863.

Alcock, Sir Rutherford. The Capital of the Tycoon: A Narrative of a Three Years' Residence 
in Japan. 2 Vols. London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, and Green, 1863. 

Alt, Phillis. "An Extract from the Memoirs of Elisabeth Christina Alt, Nee Earl, Who Lived in
Nagasaki from 1864-69, Together with an Abridged Biographical Sketch of Her Parents."  
October 1985.

"An American in Japan in 1858," Harper's Monthly, XVIII (1859): 223-231.

Ashbaugh, Adella M. Kwassui Jo Gakko, 1879-1929. Nagasaki: Kwassui Jo Gakko, 1929.

Barclay, Wade C. The Methodist Episcopal Church, 1845-1939. New York: The Board of
Missions of the Methodist Church, 1957.

Barr, Pat. The Deer Cry Pavilion: A Story of Westerners in Japan, 1868-1905. London:
Macmillan, 1968.

 ------The Coming of the Barbarians: A Story of Western Settlement in Japan, 1853-1870.
London: Macmillan, 1967.

Bax, Bonham W. The Eastern Seas: Being a Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Dwarf in
China, Japan, and Formosa. London: John Murray, 1875.

Boyd, Julia. Hannah Riddell: An Englishwoman in Japan. Rutland, VT. & Tokyo:
Charles E. Tuttle, 1996.

Boyer, Dr. Samuel Pellman. Naval Surgeon: Revolt in Japan, 1868-1869. Bloomington:
Indiana University Press, 1963. 

Brown, Sidney Devere. "Nagasaki in the Meiji Restoration: Choshu Loyalists and British 
Arms Merchants," Crossroads: A Journal of Nagasaki History and Culture, No. 1 (1993), 1-
18..

Burke-Gaffney, Brian. "The Alt House: yesterday, Today and Tomorrow," Crossroads: A 
Journal of Nagasaki History and Culture, No. 6 (1998), 89-106.

------"On the Jagged Shores of Japan: The Story of the Walker Brothers," Crossroads: A
Journal of Nagasaki History and Culture, No. 5 (1997), 59-86.

------"Hashima: The Ghost Island," Crossroads: A Journal of Nagasaki History and Culture, 
No. 4 (1996), 33-52.

------"The Man Who Could Not Take Sides: A Sketch of the Life of Kuraba Tomisaburo,"
Crossroads: A Journal of Nagasaki History and Culture, No. 3 (1995), 51-73.

------"Secret Tales of the Nagasaki International Cemeteries," Crossroads: A Journal of
Nagasaki History and Culture, No. 2 (1994), 59-68

------"The Tattoos of Michinaga Ei and Nicholas II," Crossroads: A Journal of Nagasaki 
History and Culture, No. 1 (1993), 91-105.

Cary, Otis. A History of Christianity in Japan, 2 Vols. New York and London: Fleming H. 
Revell Co., 1909.

Casembroot, J.F. De. De Medusa in de Wateren van Japan in 1863 en 1864. S Gravenhage:
De Gefroeders van Cleef, 1865.

Chamberlain, Mary E. Fifty Years in Foreign Fields: A History of Five Decades of the
Woman's Board of Foreign Missions, Reformed Church in America. New York: Woman's 
Board of Foreign Missions, Reformed Church in America, 1925.

Chang, Richard T. The Justice of the Western Consular Courts in Nineteenth-Century 
Japan. Westport, CN & London: Greenwood Press, 1984.

Cortazzi, Hugh. Victorians in Japan in and around the Treaty Ports. London and Atlantic
Highlands, NJ: The Athlone Press, 1988.

Cotazzi, Hugh and Gordon Daniels, eds. Britain and Japan, 1859-1991: Themes and
Personalities. London and New York: Routledge, 1991.

Cotazzi, Hugh and George Webb, eds. Kipling's Japan: Collected Writings. London and
Atlantic Highlands, NJ: The Athlone Press, 1987.

Curtis, William E. The Yankees of the East. New York: Stone and Kimball, 1896.

Drummond, Richard H. A History of Christianity in Japan. Grand Rapids, MI: William B.
Eerdman's, 1971.

Earns, Lane. "The Shanghai/Nagasaki Judaic Connection, 1859-1924," Jonathan Goldstein,
ed., The Jews of China:Historical and Comparative Perspectives. M.E. Sharpe, 1999, 157-168.

------"Italian Influence in the Naples of Japan,' 1859-1941," Crossroads: A Journal of 
Nagasaki History and Culture, No. 6 (1998), 71-88.

------"Where Do We Go From Here?: The Russian Railway Service Corps in Nagasaki," 
Crossroads: A Journal of Nagasaki History and Culture, No. 6 (1998), 17-30.

------"Local Implications for the End of Extraterritoriality in Japan: The Closing of the
Foreign Settlement at Nagasaki," Helen Hardacre, ed., New Directions in the Study of Meiji 
Japan. E.J. Brill, 1997, 311-319. 

------"The American Medical Presence in Nagasaki, 1858-1922," Crossroads: A Journal of 
Nagasaki History and Culture, No. 5 (1997), 33-45.

------"A Miner in the Deep and Dark Places: Guido Verbeck in Nagasaki, 1859-1869," 
Crossroads: A Journal of Nagasaki History and Culture No. 5 (1997), 87-112.

------"We Americans Have Carried on Much as Usual: The American Association of 
Nagasaki, 1923-1940," Crossroads: A Journal of Nagasaki History and Culture, No. 4 (1996), 
105-122.

------"British Influence in the Foreign Settlement at Nagasaki," The Japan Society 
[London] Proceedings, No. 125 (Summer 1995), 48-59.

------"Life at the Bottom of the Hill: A Jewish-Japanese Family in the Nagasaki Foreign 
Settlement," Crossroads: A Journal of Nagasaki History and Culture, No. 2 (1994), 79-90.

------"The Foreign Settlement in Nagasaki, 1859-1869," The Historian, Vol. 56, No.1 
(Spring 1994), 483-500. 

------"At Home with a Friend: The Story of Sara Couch and Tomegawa Jun," Crossroads: 
A Journal of Nagasaki History and Culture, No. 1 (1993), 47-58. 

------"The U.S. Consulate at Nagasaki, 1859-1941," Nagasaki shiritsu hakubutsukan kanpo, 
No. 32 (1992), 1-27 and No. 34 (1994), 1-18. English and Japanese. Yanatori Kazuhiro, 
trans. 

------"Someone in the Darkness Singing: Anthony Walvoord, A Wisconsin Missionary to 
Japan," Wisconsin Magazine of History, Vol. 74, No. 2 (Winter 1990-1991), 106-124. 

Earns, Lane and Brian Burke-Gaffney. Across the Gulf of Time: The International 
Cemeteries of Nagasaki. Nagasaki: Nagasaki Bunkensha, 1991. English and Japanese.  
Fumiko Earns and Sachiyuki Taira, trans.

Eulenburg, Count Fritz. Ost-Asien, 1860-1862, in Briefen des Grafen Fritz zu Eulenburg.
Berlin: E.S. Mittler, 1900.

Field, Irene D. "Thomas Glover of Nagasaki," Bulletin of the Japan Society, London, No. 88
(1979), 10-15. 

Ford, John D. An American Cruiser in the East. 3rd ed. New York: A.S. Barnes & Co., 1905.

Fortune, Robert. Yedo and Peking: A Narrative of a Journey to the Capitals of Japan and
China. London: John Murray, 1863.

Fox, Grace. Britain and Japan, 1858-1883. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1969.

Gragg, William F. A Cruise in the U.S. Steam Frigate Mississippi. Boston: Demmell & Moore,
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Greey, Edward. Young Americans in Japan. Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1881.

Griffis, W.E. Verbeck of Japan: A Citizen of No Country. New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1900.

Guennou, Jean. Les Mission-Etrangeres. Paris: Editions St. Paul, 1963.

Guppy, H.B. "Notes on the Geology of the Neighborhood of Nagasaki," North China Branch
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Hecken, Joseph L. Van. The Catholic Church in Japan since 1859. John Van Hoydonck, 
trans. Tokyo: Herder Agency, Enderle Bookstore, 1963.

Heco, Joseph. James Murdoch, ed. The Narrative of a Japanese. San Francisco:
American-Japanese Pub. Co.

Heine, Wilhelm. Die Expedition in die Seen von China, Japan und Ochotsk. 3 Vols.
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Hinckley, Frank E. American Consular Jurisdiction in the Orient. Washington, D.C.:
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Hoare, James.E. Japan's Treaty Ports and Foreign Settlements, The Univited Guests, 
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------"Extraterritoriality in Japan, 1858-1899," The Transactions of the Asiatic Society
of Japan, Third Series, Vol. XVIII (1983), 71-97.

Hodgson, C. Pemberton. A Residence at Nagasaki and Hakodate in 1859-1860. London:
Richard Bentley, 1861.

Holmes, Henry. My Adventures in Japan. London: R.E. King, 1904.

Humbert, Aime. Le Japon Illustre. 2 Vols. Paris: Librairie de L. Hachette et Cie, 1870.

Iglehart, Charles W. A Century of Protestant Christianity in Japan. Rutland, VT. & Tokyo:
Charles E. Tuttle, 1959.

Ion, A. Hamish. The Cross and the Rising Sun. Vol.2. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier
University Press, 1993.

Johnson, Herbert B. "Nagasaki and Its Missions," The Gospel in All Lands, Vol. 23 (1897),
60-63.

Johnston, James D. China and Japan -- Narrative of a Cruise of the U.S. Steam Frigate
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1860. 

Jones, F.C. Extraterritoriality in Japan. London and New York: Yale University Press, 1931.

Kattendyke, W.J.C. Ridder Huyssen van. Uittreksel uit het Dagboek. S Gravenhage:
W.P. Van Stockum, 1860.

Keppel, Henry. A Sailor's Life under Four Sovereigns. London: Macmillan & Co., 1899.

Kingsmill, Thomas W. "Notes on the Coal Fields and General Geology of the Neighborhood of
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Krebs, Henrik J. Sloegter af Navnet Krebs. Copenhagen, 1935.

Laman, Gordon, Henry Stout, Pioneer Missionary: His Life, His Mission, His World. Thesis,
Western Theological Seminary, 1983

------"Our Nagasaki Legacy: An Examination of the Period of Persecution of Christianity 
and Its impact on Subsequent Christian Mission in Japan," The Northeast Asia Journal of 
Theology (March/September 1982), 94-139.

Launey, Adrien. Histoire Generale de la Societie des Missions-Etrangeres. 3 Vols. Paris:
Tegui Libraire, 1894.

Laures, Johannes. The Catholic Church in Japan. Rutland, VT & Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle,
1953.

Lehmann, Jean-Pierre, "French Catholic Missionaries in Japan in the Bakumatsu and Early 
Meiji Periods," Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 13, No. 3 (1979), 377-400.

Lensen, George. The Russian Push toward Japan, 1858-1883. Princeton: Princeton 
University Press, 1959.

------Russia's Japan Expedition of 1852 to 1855. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida
Press, 1955.

Lindau, Rodolphe. Un Voyage Autour Du Japon. Paris: Libraire de L. Hachette, 1864.

Lowe, Peter. Britain in the Far East: A Survey from 1819 to the Present. London and New 
York: Longman Group, 1981.

MacDonald, Ranald. Ranald MacDonald, The Narrative of His Life1824-1894. Spokane, WA:
Eastern Washington State Historical Society, 1923. 

Mackie, Lindsey M. "The Education of T.B. Glover," Crossroads: A Journal of Nagasaki 
History and Culture, No. 6 (1998), 37-44.

Marnas, Francisque. La Religion de Jesus Ressuscitee au Japon. Paris and Lyon: Delhomme 
et Briguet, 1896. 

Mayers, William F. And Nicholas B. Dennys. The Treaty Ports of China and Japan. London:
Trubner & Co., 1867.

McCreary, Patricia. "Realms of Glory," Kwassui ronbunshu, No. 39 (1996), 251-271.

McKay, Alexander. Scottish Samurai: Thomas Blake Glover 1838-1911. Edinburgh :
Canongate Press, 1993. 

McMaster, J. Jardines in Japan, 1859-1867. Gronigen: Druk V.R.B. 1966. 

------"The Japanese Gold Rush of 1859," Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 19, no. 3, 1960. 

------"The Takashima Coal Mine: British Capital and Japanese Industrialization," Business
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McOmie, William W. "The Frigate Askold and the Opening of the Russian Settlement at
Nagasaki," Crossroads: A Journal of Nagasaki History and Culture, No. 4 (1996), 1-32.

------"The Russians in Nagasaki, 1853-54: Another Look at Some Russian, English, and 
Japanese Sources," Acta Slavica Iaponica, Vol. 13 (1995), 42-60.

------"Bakumatsu Japan through Russian Eyes: The Letters of Kapitan-Leitenant Voin
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Mette Loderriere, ed. Danes in Japan, 1868-1940: Aspects of Early Danish-Japanese 
Contacts.
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Mills, Ernest O. Jottings from Japan. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1949.

Minor, Maria. Channing Moore Williams: Pioneer Missionary in Japan. New York: The
National Council, 1959.

Mission of the Protestant Episcopal Church, Japan. Occasional Missionary Paper, Foreign
Committee, February 1859

Moges, Marquis de. Recollections of Baron Gros's Embassy to China and Japan in 1857-58.
London and Glasgow: Richard Griffin & Co., 1860.

Mosehart, Herman J. "The Conclusion of the First Dutch Traety with Japan," Crossroads: A
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Norman, Francis M. Martello Tower in China and the Pacific in H.M.S. Tribune, 1856-60.
London: George Allen, 1902.

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Oliphant, Laurence. Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's Mission to China and Japan in the Years
1857, 58, 59. 2 Vols. London: William Blackwood & Sons, 1860.

Osborn, Sherard. A Cruise in Japanese Waters. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood
and Sons, 1859.

Parker, F. Calvin. The Southern Baptist Mission in Japan, 1889-1989. Lanham, New York,
London: University Press of America, 1991.

Paske-Smith, M. Western Barbarians in Japan and Formosa in Tokugawa Days, 1603-1868.
Kobe: J.L. thompson and Co., 1927.. 

Peeke, H.V.S. Sketch of the Japan Mission (New York: Board of Foreign Missions, Reformed
Church in America, 1923.

Petersen, Julius V. Erindringen fra Japan. Copenhagen, 1877.

Pompe van Meerdevoort, J.L.C. Doctor on Desima (1857-1863). Translated and annotated 
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------Vijf Jaren in Japan. Leiden: Firma van den Heuvell & van Santen, 1868.

------"Dissection of a Japanese Criminal," North China Branch Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 
II, No.1 (September 1860), 85-91. (Dated Desima November 1 & 17, 1859. Read before 
Society December 27, 1859) 

------"On the Study of Natural Sciences in Japan," North China Branch Royal Asiatic
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Society December 23, 1858)

Reed, Edward J. Japan: Its History, Traditions, and Religions with the Narrative of a Visit in
1879. London: John Murray, 1880.

Rein, J.J. Japan: Travels and Researches. London" Hodder and Stoughton, 1884.

Ryder, Stephen. A Historical Sourcebook of the Japan Mission of the Reformed Church in
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1858. Chief Engineer, U.S. Navy, Powhattan.)

Siebold, Alexander F. von. Ph. Fr. Von Siebold's Lezte Reise Nach Japan, 1859-1862. Berlin:
Kisak[u] Tamai, 1903

Smith, D. European Settlements in the Far East. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co., 
1900.

Smith, George. Ten Weeks in Japan. London: Longman, Green & Co., 1861.

Spiecs, Gustav. Die Preussische Expedition nach Ostasien, Wahrend der Jare 1860-1862.
Berlin: Otto Spamer, 1864.

Stock, Eugene. History of the Church Missionary Society. 4 vols. London: C.M.S., 1879 and
1916.

------Japan and the Japan Mission of the Church Missionary Society. C.D. Snell, ed.
4th ed. London: Church Missionary Society, 1905.

Stout, Henry. "Nagasaki in Days of Yore," Cherry Blossoms. October 1905-March 1906.

Sugiyama Shinya. "Thomas Glover: A British Merchant in Japan, 1861-1870," Business 
History, Vol. 26, No. 2, 1984. 

------"Glover and Co.: A British Merchant in Nagasaki, 1861-1870," International Studies,
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1859.

Van Hecken, Joseph L. The Catholic Church in Japan since 1859. Tokyo: Herder Agency, 
1963. 

Verbeck, Guido F. "History of Protestant Missions in Japan," Proceedings of the General
Conference of Protestant Missionaries in Japan, 1900. Tokyo: Methodist Publishing House, 
1901.

Wainright, S.H. The Methodist Mission in Japan. Nashville: Board of Missions, Methodist
Episcopal Church, 1935.

Walne, E.N. "The Japan Mission," Southern Baptist Foreign Missions. T. Bronson, ed. 
Nashville: Sunday School Board, 1910. 

Williams, Frederick Wells. The Life and Letters of Samuel Wells Williams. Wilmington, Del.:
Scholarly Resources Inc., 1972. 

Williams, Harold S. The Story of Holme Ringer & Co., LTD. in Western Japan, 1868-1968.
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------Foreigners in Mikadoland. Rutland, VT & Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle, 1963.

------Shades of the Past, or Indiscreet Tales of Japan. Rutland, VT & Tokyo: Charles E.
Tuttle, 1959.

------Tales of the Foreign Settlement in Japan. Rutland, VT & Tokyo: Charles E.
Tuttle, 1958.

Williams, S.W. "Lecture on Japan," North China Branch Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. I, No.2
(May 1859), 180-210. (Read before Society October 26, 1858)

Wood, Dr. William M. Fankwei. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1859.

Yokoyama Toshio. Japan in the Victorian Mind: A Study of Stereotyped Images of a Nation,
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Archives

The Reformed Church in America, Archives-Commission on History, Rutgers University, New
Brunswick, NJ.

The Reformed Church of America, Joint Archives of Holland, Holland, MI.

General Commission on Archives and History, The United Methodist Church, Drew 
University, Madison, NJ.

The Archives of the Episcopal Church, Austin TX.

Foreign Mission Board Archives [Southern Baptist Convention], Richmond, VA.

Church Missionary Society Archives, University of Birmingham Library.

British Foreign Office, Japan Correspondence, 1856-1905, London.

British Foreign Office, Records of the Nagasaki Consulate from 1859, London.

U.S. National Archives, Despatches from United States Consuls in Nagasaki, Japan, 1860-
1906, Washington D.C..

U.S. Naval Historical Center, Washington D.C.

Y.M.C.A. International Archives, St. Paul, MN.

Nagasaki Prefectural Library, Nagasaki Local History Archives, Nagasaki, Japan

Nagasaki Municipal Museum, Western Book Collection, Nagasaki Japan

Yokohama Maritime Museum, Yokohama, Japan

Historiographical Institute, Tokyo University, Meiji Newspaper Collection, Tokyo, Japan


Western Language Newspapers

Cherry Blossoms (Nagasaki)
Nagasaki Express (Nagasaki)
Nagasaki Press(Nagasaki)
Nagasaki Shipping List (Nagasaki)
Rising Sun and Nagasaki Express (Nagasaki)
Nagasaki Shipping List and Advertiser (Nagasaki)
Volya (Nagasaki)
North China Herald (Shanghai)
China Mail (Hong Kong)
Israel's Messenger (Shanghai)
Japan Herald (Yokohama)
Japan Times Overland Mail (Yokohama)
Far East (Shanghai)

Other Western Language Primary Sources

The Chronicle & Directory for China, Corea, Japan, the Philippines, Cochin China, Annam,
Tonquin, Siam, Borneo, Straits Settlements, Malay States, etc. 
The Nagasaki Directory.
Japan Herald Directory.
Christian Intelligencer.
Japan Christian Yearbook.
Woman's Missionary Friend.
The Japanese News Letter of the Japan Mission of the Reformed Church in America.
Official Correspondence (Nagasaki Prefectural Library).
Circulars (Nagasaki Prefectural Library).
Despatches (Nagasaki Prefectural Library).
General Correspondence (Nagasaki Prefectural Library).
Foreign Correspondence (Nagasaki Prefectural Library).
Certificate of Title by Governor of Nagasaki (Nagasaki Prefectural Library).